| More

Languages of loss and mourning beyond (the) borders: Bosnia

Views: 209 Downloads: 165
Snežana Stanković
Snežana Stanković

Abstract


The following paper deals with the language of commemoration of refugee women from ex-Yugoslavia, mainly Bosnia who escaped to Berlin during or after the violent conflicts in the 1990s. Handkerchiefs, personalised with names, birth and death dates of deceased family members, have arisen out of the embroidery therapy they have undertaken. These artefacts all resemble each other in that they recount the trauma of the loss of the beloved dead, whose remains were either found and then reburied, or the dead who remained missing. This micro-study aims at analyzing the verbal and visual means of expression employed by the refugee women in their embroidery. In treating language as a semiotic composition of oral and written verbal communication, image, sound, and movement, it leaves sociolinguistic discussions on the national languages which have emerged in the region behind and delves into the expression of loss and mourning inscribed on the handkerchiefs.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ariès, P. 2009 [1982]. Geschichte des Todes [L’homme devant la mort]. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Asad, T. 1986. “The concept of cultural translation in British social anthropology.” In J. Clifford & G. E. Marcus (eds.), Writing Culture. The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkely & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 140-164.

Бартмињски, Ј. 2011. Језик-слика-свет: Етнолингвистичке студије. Београд: SlovoSlavia [Bartmiński, J. 2011. Language-Image-World: Ethnolinguistic Studies. Belgrade: SlovoSlavia].

Blommaert, J. & B. Rampton, 2011. “Language and superdiversity”. Diversities 13(2): 1-21.

Boss, P. 1999. Ambiguous Loss: Learning to Live with Unresolved Grief. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press.

Buch, L. 2010. “Derivative presence: Loss and lives in limbo in the West Bank.” In M. Bille, F. Hastrup & T. F. Sørensen (eds.), An Anthropology of Absence: Materializations of Transcendence and Loss. New York & Dordrecht: Springer, 83-98.

Bugarski, R. 2012. “Language, identity and borders in the former Serbo-Croatian area.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 33(3): 219-235.

Butler, J. 2004. Precarious Life: The Power of Mourning and Violence. London & New York: Verso.

Butler, J. 2009. Frames of War: When is Life Grievable? London & New York: Verso.

Caraveli-Chaves, A. 1980. “Bridge between worlds: The Greek women's lament as communicative event.” The Journal of American Folklore 93(368): 129-157.

Caraveli-Chaves, A. 1986. “The bitter wounding: The lament as social protest in rural Greece.” In J. Dubisch (ed.), Gender and Power in Rural Greece. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 169-194.

Cassirer, E. 1946. Language and Myth. New York: Dover Publications Inc.

Clayton, B. 2004. A Penelopean Poetics: Reweaving the Feminine in Homer’s Odyssey. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

Closterman, W. E. 2014. “Women as gift givers and gift producers in ancient Athenian funerary ritual.” In A. Avramidou & D. Demetriou (eds.), Approaching the Ancient Artifact: Representation, Narrative, and Function. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter, 161-174.

Derrida, J. 2001. The Work of Mourning. Edited by A.-P. Brault & M. Naas. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.

Dimova, R. 2013. Ethno-Baroque: Materiality, Aesthetics, and Conflict in Modern-Day Macedonia. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Doloughan, F. 2011. Contemporary Narrative: Textual Production, Multimodality and Multiliteracies. London & New York: Continuum.

Durkheim, E. 1995. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York & London: The Free Press.

Eng, D. L. & D. Kazanjian (eds). 2003. Loss: The Politics of Mourning. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fishman, A. 2008. “Thrênoi to moirológia: Female voices of solitude, resistance, and solidarity.” Oral Tradition 23(2): 267-295.

Fishman, J. A. 1989. Language and Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic Perspective. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

Foley, J. M. 2002. How to Read an Oral Poem. Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Giunta, E. & J. Sciorra (eds). 2014. Embroidered Stories: Interpreting Women’s Domestic Needlework from the Italian Diaspora. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Greimas, A. J. 1987. On Meaning: Selected Writings in Semiotic Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Gumbrecht, H. U. 2006. “Achieved in language (with special attention given to the presence of the past).” History and Theory 45(3): 317-327.

Halilovich, H. 2014. “Reclaiming erased lives: Archives, records and memories in postwar Bosnia and the Bosnian diaspora.” Archival Science 14(3-4): 231-247.

Halilovich, H. 2016. “Re-imaging and re-imagining the past after ‘memoricide’: Intimate archives as inscribed memories of the missing.” Archival Science 16(1): 77- 92.

Hallam, E. & J. Hockey. 2001. Death, Memory and Material Culture. Oxford: Berg.

Hasan-Rokem, G. 2014. “Bodies performing in ruins: The lamenting mother in Ancient Hebrew texts.” In I. Farber & P. Schwebel (eds.), Laments in Jewish Thought: Philosophical, Theological, and Literary Perspectives. Berlin: De Gruyter, 33-63.

Hodder, I. & S. Hutson. 2003. Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archeology. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

Honko, L. (ed.). 2000. Textualization of Oral Epics. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter.

Jakoby, N. 2012. “Grief as a social emotion: Theoretical perspectives.” Death Studies 36(8): 679-711.

Jensen, A. M. B. 2010. “A sense of absence: The staging of heroic deaths and ongoing lives among American organ donor families.” In M. Bille, F. Hastrup & T. F. Sørensen (eds.), An Anthropology of Absence: Materializations of Transcendence and Loss. New York & Dordrecht: Springer, 62-80.

Kastenbaum, R. (ed.). 2003. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan.

Kearl, M. C. E. 1989. A Sociology of Death and Dying. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kratz, C. A. 2011. “Rhetorics of value: Constituting worth and meaning through cultural display.” Visual Anthropology Review 27(1): 21-48.

Küchler, S. 2014. “Relational maps in the Cook sland transnational communities.” In C. De Cesari & A. Rigley (eds.), Transnational Memory: Circulation, Articulation, Scales. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter, 99-123.

Lakoff, G. & M. Johnson. 2003. Metaphors We Live by. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Laqueur, Th. W. 2015. The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lord, A. B. 2000 [1960]. The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press.

Mandolessi, S. 2014. “Haunted houses, horror literature and the space of memory in post-dictatorship Argentine literature.” In E. Schindel & P. Colombo (eds.), Space and the Memories of Violence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 150-161.

McLaren, A. E. 2008. Performing Grief: Bridal Laments in Rural China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Metcalf, P. & R. Huntington. 1991. Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nettelfield, L. J. & S. E. Wagner. 2014. Srebrenica in the Aftermath of Genocide. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nichanian, M. 2003. “Catastrophic mourning.” In D. L. Eng & D. Kazanjian (eds.), Loss: The Politics of Mourning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 99-124.

Norrick, N. 2008. “Conversational storytelling.” In D. Herman, M. Jahn & M.-L. Ryan (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory. London & New York: Routledge, 84-86.

Nöth, W. 2000. Handbuch der Semiotik. 2nd completely revised and augmented edition. Stuttgart & Weimar: Verlag J. B. Metzler.

Nussbaum, M. C. 2013. Political Emotions: Why Love Matters for Justice. Cambridge, MA & London: The Belknap Press.

Ochs, E. 1992. “Indexing gender.” In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (eds.), Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 335-358.

Ong, W. J. 2002 [1982]. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London & New York: Routledge.

Radulović, N. 2015. “Arbor mundi: Visual formula and the poetics of genre.” In M. Detelić & L. Delić (eds.), Epic Formula: A Balkan Perspective. Belgrade: Institute for Balkan Studies, 65-80.

Rawson, J. 2006. “Ornament as system: Chinese bird-and-flower design.” The Burlington Magazine: Decorative Arts and Design 148(1239): 380-389.

Renshaw, L. 2010. “Missing bodies near-at-hand: The dissonant memory and dormant grave of the Spanish civil war.” In M. Bille, F. Hastrup & T. F. Sørensen (eds.), An Anthropology of Absence: Materializations of Transcendence and Loss. New York & Dordrecht: Springer, 45-61.

Rosaldo, R. 2004 [1989]. “Grief and a headhunter’s rage.” In A. C. G. M. Robben (ed.), Death, Mourning, and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader. Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell, 167-178.

Rosenblatt, A. & S. Wagner. 2017. “Known unknowns: Forensic science, the nationstate, and the iconic dead.” In C. M. Stojanowski & W. N. Duncan (eds.), Forensic Biohistory: Anthropological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 237-266.

Seremetakis, N. C. 1991. The Last Word: Women, Death and Divination in Inner Mani. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Sokoly, J. 2017. “Textile and identity.” In F. B. Flood & G. Necipoğlu (eds.), A Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: Willey Blackwell, 275-299.

van der Veer, P. 2016. The Value of Comparison. Durham: Duke University Press.

van Leeuwen, T. 2005. Introducing Social Semiotics. London & New York: Routledge.

Wagner, S. 2010. “Tabulating loss, entombing memory: The Srebrenica-Potocari Memorial Centre.” In E. Anderson, A. Maddrell, K. McLoughlin & A. Vincent (eds.), Memory, Mourning, Landscape. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 61-78.

Williams, H. 2006. Death and Memory in Early Medieval Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, P. H. 2007. Memorial Museums: The Global Rush to Commemorate Atrocities. Oxford & New York: Berg.

Woodthorpe, K. 2010. “Private grief in public spaces: Interpreting memorialisation in the contemporary cemetery.” In J. Hockey, C. Komaromy & K. Woodthorpe (eds.), The Matter of Death: Space, Place and Materiality. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 117-132.

Wu, H. 2010. The Art of the Yellow Springs: Understanding Chinese Tombs. London: Reaktion Books.

Internet Sources

Movements of Mothers of Srebrenica and Žepa Enclaves: http://enklave-srebrenica-zepa.org/english.onama.php (last accessed: December

.

Women in Black: http://zeneucrnom.org/index.php?lang=en (last accessed: December 2018).

English translation of Chinese poetry: https://28utscprojects.wordpress.com/2011/01/08/106/ (last accessed: December 2018).

Declaration on the Common Language: http://jezicinacionalizmi.com/deklaracija/ (last accessed: December 2018).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Snežana Stanković

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.