| More

Preliminary studies for the attract-and-kill strategy against Culex pipiens

Views: 113 Downloads: 92
E. Kioulos, G. Koliopoulos, E. A. Couladouros, A. Michaelakis
E. Kioulos, G. Koliopoulos, E. A. Couladouros, A. Michaelakis


The attract-and-kill strategy requires an intelligent and an efficient combination of an attractant and a killing agent such as a pheromone and an insecticide respectively. The production of the synthetic oviposition pheromone of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) was already achieved and its combination with three different insecticides were tested. Furthermore three larvicides, an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen), an organophosphate (temephos) and a microbial (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis) were tested in the laboratory against Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) as agents that can keep water free from mosquito larvae. Larvicidal activity, over a 50-day period, revealed good results primary for temephos and secondary for pyriproxyfen. Temephos killed all the hatched larvae (100%) while pyriproxyfen was effective the first five days (>90%) and for the following days mortality was in a rate between 60 and 80%. The results from oviposition bioassays revealed that except temephos all the tested larvicidals repel gravid females of laying eggs for the first two days. However, when synthetic pheromone is combined with the three larvicidals, temephos and microbial agent followed the same attractant pattern as synthetic pheromone independently.


Culex pipiens biotype molestus; synthetic oviposition pheromone; pyriproxyfen; temephos; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

Full Text:



Aronson, A.I., W. Beckman and P. Dunn. 1986. Bacillus thuringiensis and related insect pathogens. Microbiol. Rev. 50: 1-24.

Barjac, H. and D. Sutherland. 1990. Bacterial control of mosquitoes and black flies, London, Unwin Hyman.

Becker, N., D. Petric, M. Zgomba, C. Boase, C. Dahl, J. Lane and A. Kaiser. 2003. Mosquitoes and their control, New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Beehler, J.W. and M.S. Mulla. 1993. Effect of the insect growth regulator methoprene on the ovipositional behavior of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 9: 13-16.

Bourguet, D., D. Fonseca, G. Vourch, M.P. Dubois, F. Chandre, C. Severini and M. Raymond. 1998. The acetylcholinesterase gene Ace: a diagnostic marker for the pipiens and quinquefasciatus forms of the Culex pipiens complex. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 14: 390-396.

Bruno, D.W. and B.R. Laurence. 1979. The influence of the apical droplet of Culex egg rafts on oviposition of Culex pipiens fatigans (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 4: 300-305.

Cilek, J.E., J.D. Webb and F.W. Knapp. 1991. Residual concentration and efficacy of three temephos formulations for control of larval Aedes aegypti. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 7: 310-312.

El-Shazly, M., M. Refaie and B.M. Refaie. 2002. Larvicidal effect of the juvenile hormone mimic pyriproxyfen on Culex pipiens. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 18: 321-328.

Isoe, J., J.G. Millar and J.W. Beehler. 1995. Bioassays for Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito oviposition attractants and stimulants. J. Med. Entomol. 32: 475-483.

Laurence, B.R. and J.A. Pickett. 1985. An oviposition attractant pheromone in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 75: 283-290.

Lee, D.K. 2001. Field evaluation of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, against Aedes togoi larvae in brackish water in South Korea. J. Vect. Ecol. 26: 39-42.

Lundström, J.O. 1999. Mosquito-borne viruses in Western Europe: a review. J. Vect. Ecol. 24: 1-39.

Maw, M.G. 1970. Capric acid as larvicide and an oviposition stimulant for mosquitoes. Nature 227: 1144-1145.

Michaelakis, A., A.P. Mihou, E.A. Couladouros, A.K. Zounos and G. Koliopoulos. 2005. Oviposition responces of Culex pipiens to a synthetic racemic Culex quinquefasciatus oviposition aggregation pheromone. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 5225-5229.

Mihou, A.P., A. Michaelakis, F. Krokos, B. Mazomenos and E.A. Couladouros. 2007. Prolonged slow release of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, the sex pheromone of several Noctuidae species, employing polyurea microcapsules. J. Appl. Ent. 131: 128-133.

Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and E.T. Schreiber. 1989. Impact of new insect regulators and their formulations on mosquito larval development in impoundment and floodwater habitats. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 5: 15-20.

Mulrennan, J.A., Jr. 1995. Vector control without chemicals: A public health perspective. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 11: 256-257.

Novak, R.J., B.A. Steinly, D.W. Webb, L. Haramis, J. Clarke, B. Farmer and R. Cieslik. 1990. Penetration rate of two pesticide carriers at a large used-tire storage facility in Chicago, Illinois. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6: 188-196.

Olagbemiro, T.O., M.A. Birkett, A.J. Mordue (Luntz) and J.A. Pickett. 2004. Laboratory and field responses of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to plant-derived Culex spp. oviposition pheromone and the oviposition cue skatole. J. Chem. Ecol. 30: 965-976.

Olejnicek, J. and I. Gelbic. 2000. Differences in response to temperature and density between two strains of the mosquito, Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. J. Vect. Ecol. 25: 136-145.

Rettich, F. 1977. The susceptibility of mosquito larvae to eighteen insecticides in Czechoslovakia. Mosq. News 37: 252-257.

Ritchie, S.A. and S. Long. 2003. Does methoprene affect oviposition by Aedes aegypti in an ovitrap? J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19: 170-171.

Schaefer, C.H., T. Miura, E.F Dupras, Jr., F.S. Mulligan III and W.H. Wilder. 1988. Efficacy, nontarget effects and chemical persistence of S-31183, a promising mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) control agent. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 1648-1655.

Stetter, J. and L. Folker. 2000. Innovation in crop protection: trends in research (Review). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39: 1724-1744.

WHO. 1981. Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides, Geneva, World Health Organization.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 E. Kioulos, G. Koliopoulos, E. A. Couladouros, A. Michaelakis