| More

ACTIVE GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS IN THE CONTINENTAL RIFT ZONES OF THE MENDERES MASSIF, WESTERN ANATOLIA, TURKEY

Views: 668 Downloads: 318
N. Özgür, T. Arife Çalışkan
N. Özgür, T. Arife Çalışkan

Abstract


The active geothermal waters of Kızıldere, Bayındır, and Salihli in the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz represent typical examples in the study area. The meteoric waters in the drainage areas of the rift zones percolate at NE-SW and/or NW-SE trending fault zones and permeable clastic sediments into the reaction zone of the roof area of a magma chamber situated in a probable depth of up to 5 km where meteoric fluids are heated by the cooling magmatic melt and ascend to the surface due to their lower density caused by convection cells. The volatile components of CO2, SO2, HCl, H2S, HB, HF, and He out of the magma reach the geothermal water reservoir where an equilibrium between altered rocks, gas components, and fluids performs. Thus, the geothermal waters ascend in the tectonical zones of weakness at the continental rift zones of the Menderes Massif in terms of hot springs, gases, and steams. These fluids are characterized by high to medium CO2, H2S and NaCl contents.


Keywords


Turkey; Menderes Massif; continental rift zones; active geothermal waters; geothermal modeling;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bozkurt, E. and Park, R.G., 1994. Southern Menderes Massif: an incipient metamorphic core

complex in western Anatolia, Turkey, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 151, 213-216.

Bozkurt, E., 1995. Deformation during main Menderes metamorphism (MMM) and its tectonic

significance: evidence from southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, Terra, 7, 176.

Bozkurt, E. and Park, R.G., 1997. Evolution of mid-Tertiary extensional shear zone in the southern

Menderes Massif, western Turkey, Soc. Geo. Fr. Bull., 168, 3-14.

Bozkurt, E. and Park, R.G., 1997. Microstructures of deformed grains in the augen gneisses of

southern Menderes Massif and their tectonic significance, Geol. Rundsch., 86, 103-119.

Bozkurt, E. and Park, R.G., 1999. The structure of the Paleozoic schists in the southern Menderes

Massif, western Turkey: a new approach to the origin of the main Menderes metamorphism

and its relation to the Lycian Nappes, Geodinamica acta (Paris), 12, 25-42.

Bozkurt, E., 2001. Late Alpine evolution of the central Menderes Massif, Western Turkey, Internat.

J. Earth Sci., 89, 728-744.

Collins, A.S. and Robertson, A.H.F., 1998. Processes of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene episodic

thrust-sheet translation in the Lycian Taurides, SW Turkey, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 155, 759-772.

Dewey, J.F. and Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. Aegean and surrounding regions: complex multiplate and

continuum tectonics in a convergent zone, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., Part I, 90, 84-92.

Dora, O.Ö., Candan, O., Dürr, S. and Oberhänsli, R., 1995. New evidence on the geotectonic

evolution of the Menderes Massif. In: Pişkin, Ö., Ergün, M., Savaşçın, M.Y. and Tarcan, G.,

eds., Proc. Internat. Earth Sci. Colloquium on Aegean Region, 9-14 October 1995, İzmir-

Güllük, Turkey, 1, 53-72.

Dürr, S., Dora, O.Ö., Candan, O., Özer, S. and Güngör, T., 1995. Stratigraphy and tectonics of the

Menderes Massif, Proc. Internat. Earth Sci. Congr. on Aegean Regions,

İzmir/Güllük/Turkey, Excursion Guide, 10 pp.

Ercan, T., Dinçel, A., Türkecan, A. and Erdoğdu, G., 1992. Petrochemical characteristics and genetic

interpretation of the basaltic volcanism of Kula (Manisa, Turkey), Geologica Balcanica, 22,

-73.

Fournier, R.O., 1997. Chemical geothermometers and mixing models for geothermal systems,

Geothermics, 5, 41-50.

Fournier, R.O., 1979. A revised equation for the Na/K geothermometer, Geoth. Res. Council. Trans.,

, 221-224.

Giese, L., 1997. Geotechnische und umweltgeologische Aspekte bei der Bohrung und Reinjektion

von Thermalfluiden zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie am Beispiel des Geothermalfeldes

Kızıldere und des Umfeldes, W-Anatolien, Türkei, Ph.D. thesis, Freie Universität Berlin,

pp.

Giggenbach, W.F., 1992. Magma degassing and mineral deposition in hydrothermal systems along

convergent plate boundaries, Econ. Geol., 87, 1927-1944.

Guidi, M., Marini, L. and Principe, C., 1991. Hydrogeochemistry of Kızıldere geothermal system

and nearby region, Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 14, 901-908.

Hattori, K. and Cameron, E.M., 1986. Archaean magmatic sulphate, Nature, 319/60842, 45-47.

Hetzel, R., 1995. The Alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Menderes Massif, southwerstern

Turkey, Ph. D. thesis, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, 79 pp.

Hetzel, R., Passchier, C.W., Ring, U. and Dora, O.Ö., 1995a, Bivergent extension in orogenic belts:

the Menderes Massif (southwestern Turkey), Geology, 23, 455-458.

Hetzel, R., Ring, U., Akal, C. and Troesch, M., 1995. Miocene NNE-directed extensional unroofing

in the Menderes Massif, southwestern Turkey, J. Geol. Soc., London, 152, 1-16.

Hetzel, R., Romer, R.L., Candan, O. and Passchier, C.W., 1998. Geology of the Bozdağ area, central

Menderes Massif, SW Turkey: Pan-African basement and Alpine deformation, Geol.

Rundsch., 87, 394-406.

Hetzel, R. and Reischmann, T., 1996. Intrusion age of Pan-African augen gneisses in the southern

Menderes Massif and the age of cooling after after Alpine ductile extensional deformation.

Geol. Mag., 133, 565-572.

Koçyiğit, A., Yusufoğlu, H. and ve Bozkurt, E., 1999. Evidence from the Gediz graben for episodic

two-stage extension in western Turkey, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 156, 605-616.

McKenzie, D.P., 1978. Active tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan belt: the Aegean and the

surrounding regions, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 55, 217-254.

Okay, A., 2001. Stratigraphic and metamorphic inversions in the Central Menderes Massif: A new

structural model, J. Earth Sciences, 89, 709-727.

Özgür, N., Halbach, P., Pekdeğer, A., Sommer-von Jarmersted, C., Sönmez, N., Dora, O.Ö., Ma,

D.-S., Wolf, M. and Stichler, W., 1997. Epithermal antimony, mercury, and gold deposits in

the rift zone of the Küçük Menderes, Western Anatolia, Turkey: preliminary studies. In:

Papunen, H., ed., Mineral Deposits, Research and Exploration (Where do they meet ?), Proc.

th Biennial SGA Meeting, Turku, Finland, August, 11-13, 269-272.

Özgür, N., 1998. Aktive und fossile Geothermalsysteme in den kontinentalen Riftzones des Menderes

Massives, W-Anatolien, Türkei, Habilitationsschrift, Freie Universität Berlin, 171 pp.

Özgür, N., Pekdeğer, A., Wolf, M., Stichler, W., Seiler, K.P. and Satır, M., 1998. Hydrogeochemical

and isotope geochemical features of the thermal waters of Kızıldere, Salavatlı, and

Germencik in the rift zone of the Büyük Menderes, western Anatolia, Turkey: Preliminary

studies. In: Arehart, G.B. and Hulston, J.R., eds., Proc. Internat. 9th Symp. on Water-Rock

Interaction, Taupo, New Zealand, 30 March-3 April 1998, (1998a), 645-648.

Özgür, N., Vogel, M. and Pekdeğer, A., 1998. A new type of hydrothermal alteration of the Kızıldere

geothermal field in the rift zone of the Büyük Menderes, western Anatolia, Turkey. In:

Arehart, G.B. and Hulston, J.R., eds., Proc. Internat. 9th Symp. on Water-Rock Interaction,

Taupo, New Zealand, 30 March-3 April 1998, (1998b), 679-682.

Özgür, N., 2001. Origin of the high boron contents in the thermal waters of the rift zones of the

Menderes Massif, Western Anatolia, Turkey, International Geology Review, 43, 910-920.

Özgür, N., 2002. Geochemical signature of the Kızıldere geothermal field, Western Anatolia,

Turkey, International Geology Review, 44, 153-163.

Özgür, N., 2003. Aktive geothermal systems in the rift zone of the Büyük Menderes, western Anatolia,

Turkey, www.geothermie.de/egec-geothernet/proceeedings/szeged/o-5-04.pdf, 28 August, 2003.

Özgür, N., Graf, W., Stichler, W. and Wolf, M., 2014. Origin of high sulfate contents in the thermal

waters of Kızıldere and environs, western Anatolia, Turkey, In: Chatzipetros, A.A. and

Pavlides, S.B., eds., Proc. 5th Internat. Symp. on Eastern Mediterranean Geology,

Thessaloniki, Greece, 14-17 April 2014, 1306-1309.

Özgür, N., 2010. Hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and isotope geochemical modeling of the

thermal waters of the Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey, Proc. World Gothermal

Congress, 25-29 April 2010, Bali Indonesia.

Özgür, N., 2013. Hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and isotope geochemical modeling of the

thermal waters of the Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey, Proc. 38th Workshop on

Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, February

, SGP-TR 198.

Simşek, Ş., 1985. Geothermal model of Denizli, Sarayköy-Buldan area, Geothermics, 14, 393-417.

Sözbilir, H., 1995. Stratigraphy and provenance of the Paleocene-Eocene Alakaya Basin in the

Denizli Province, southwestern Turkey, In: Pişkin, Ö., Ergün, M., Savaşçın, M.Y. and

Tarcan, G., eds., Proc. Internat. Earth Sci. Colloquium on Aegean Region, 9-14 October

, İzmir-Güllük, Turkey, 1, 309-329.

Verge, N.J., 1995. Oligo-Miocene extensional exhumation of the Menderes Massif, western

Anatolia, Terra, 7, 117.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 N. Özgür, T. Arife Çalışkan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.