Βοηθήστε μας να κάνουμε καλύτερη την υπηρεσία eJournals. Αν έχετε χρησιμοποιήσει την υπηρεσία eJournals στο παρελθόν και έχετε κάποια εμπειρία ως προς τη χρήση της, παρακαλούμε αφιερώστε ένα λεπτό και συμπληρώστε το σύντομο ερωτηματολόγιο!

Online Counseling: Advantages, Disadvantages and Ethical Issues


Published: May 17, 2022
Keywords:
online couseling effectiveness ethical issues covid 19
Sofia Kiriakaki
Maria Tzovanou
Anastasia Sotiriou
Maria Lampou
Eleni Varsamidou
Abstract

The present research aims to study some aspects of online counseling. More specifically, the possibilities, the difficulties, the effectiveness, as well as issues of ethics, which are raised through the internet practice, are being explored in the light of the mental health specialists that provide it. In addition, it is being examined the way in which covid-19 pandemic affected its demand. In order to conduct the research, a questionnaire was completed by 25 Greek experts who provide online counseling services. Then, their answers were quantified and compared with the data of the existing bibliography. The findings are in accordance with it on pros, cons, demand during the pandemic, and the effectiveness of online counseling compared to the in person one. However, a differentiation was observed, concerning the most prevailing way of conducting online counseling and the counselors’ perception of protection of their personal data. Restrictions such as the type of the sampling and the online giving of the questionnaire could affect the results of the research. Future studies could lead to further conclusions, by taking into account the findings and the limitations.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Student Research
Downloads
Download data is not yet available.
References
Andrews, G., Davies, M., & Titov, N. (2011). Effectiveness randomized controlled trial of face to face versus Internet cognitive behaviour therapy for social phobia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(4), 337- 340. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2010.538840
Barak, A., Klein, B., & Proudfoot, J. G. (2009). Defining internet-supported therapeutic interventions. Annals of behavioral medicine, 38(1), 4- 17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9130-7
Barnett, J. E., & Scheetz, K. (2003). Technological advances and telehealth: Ethics, law, and the practice of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40(1-2), 86–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.40.1-2.86
Barnwell, S. S. (2017). The accidental Telepsychologist: Creating opportunities in burgeoning Field. Career Paths in Telemental Health, 131-138. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23736-7_12
Bartle, R. A. (2010). From MUDs to MMORPGs: The history of virtual worlds. In J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrub, & M. Allen (Eds.), International handbook of internet research (pp. 23–39). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9789-8_2
Bauman, S., & Rivers, I. (2015). Mental health in the digital age. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137333179
Bhuvaneswar, C. G., & Gutheil, T. G. (2008). E-mail and psychiatry: Some psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic perspectives. American journal of psychotherapy, 62(3), 241-261. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2008.62.3.241
Bian, S., & Miller, J. (2020). Online Psychological Counseling: Is It Really Effective?. http://fycjournal.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Online-PyschologicalCounseling.pdf
Bolton, J. (2017). The Ethical Issues which must be addressed in online counselling. Australian Counselling Research Journal, 11(1), 1-15. http://www.acrjournal.com.au/resources/assets/journals/Volume-11-Issue-1-2017/Volume-11-Issue-1-2017-FULL.pdf
Chandras, K. (2000). Technology-Enhanced Counselor Training: Essential Technical Competencies. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 224-227. Retrieved ,14 May, 2022, from link.gale.com/apps/doc/A68998588/AONE?u=googlescholar&sid=googleScholar&xid=d6f47d0d..
Dores, A. R., Geraldo, A., Carvalho, I. P., & Barbosa, F. (2020). The use of new digital information and communication technologies in psychological counseling during the CoViD 19 pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(20), 7663. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207663
Efstathiou, G. (2009). Students' psychological web consulting: Function and outcome evaluation. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 37, 243-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069880902956983
Erbe, D., Eichert, H. C., Riper, H., & Ebert, D. D. (2017). Blending face-to-face and internet-based interventions for the treatment of mental disorders in adults: systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research, 19(9), e306. http://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6588
Finn, J., & Banach, M. (2002). Risk management in online human services practice. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 20(1-2), 133- 153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J017v20n01_11
Finn, J., & Barak, A. (2010). A descriptive study of e-counsellor attitudes, ethics, and practice. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10(4), 268- 277. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733140903380847
Fitzgerald, T. D., Hunter, P. V., Hadjistavropoulos, T., & Koocher, G. P. (2010). Ethical and legal considerations for internet-based psychotherapy. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(3), 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506071003636046
Fleming, D. A., Edison, K. E., & Pak, H. (2009). Telehealth ethics. Telemedicine and e-Health, 15(8), 797-803. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2009.0035
Gamble, N., Boyle, C., & Morris, Z. A. (2015). Ethical practice in Telepsychology.Australian Psychologist, 50(4), 292-298. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12133
Griffiths, M. (2001). Online therapy: A cause for concern? Psychologist, 14, 244- 248.
Grohol, J. M. (1998). Future clinical directions: Professional development, pathology, and psychotherapy on-line. In J. Gackenbach (Ed.), Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications (pp. 111- 140). Academic Press.
Grohol, J. M. (2004). Online counseling: A historical perspective. In R. Kraus, J. Zack, & G. Stricker (Eds.), Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals (pp. 51-68). Academic Press.
Grumet, G. W. (1979). Telephone therapy: A review and case report. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49(4), 574-584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1979.tb02643.x
Haberstroh, S., Duffey, T., Evans, M., Gee, R., & Trepal, H. (2007). The experience of online counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 269-282. http://doi.org/10.17744/mehc.29.3.j344651261w357v2
Harris, B., & Birnbaum, R. (2015). Ethical and legal implications on the use of technology in counselling. Clinical Social Work Journal, 43(2), 133– 141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-014-0515-0
Holmes, L., & Ainsworth, M. (2004). The future of online counseling. In R. Kraus, J. Zack, & G. Stricker (Eds.), Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals (pp. 257- 269). Academic Press.
Hunt, S. (2002). In favour of online counselling?. Australian Social Work, 55(4), 260- 267. https://doi.org/10.1080/03124070208410984
Kiropoulos, L. A., Klein, B., Austin, D. W., Gilson, K., Pier, C., Mitchell, J., & Ciechomski, L. (2008). Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT?. Journal of anxiety disorders, 22(8), 1273-1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.01.008
Koocher, G. P. (2007). Twenty-first century ethical challenges for psychology. American Psychologist, 62(5), 375. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.5.375
Kotsopoulou, A., Melis, A., Koutsompou, V.I., & Karasarlidou, C. (2015). E-therapy: the ethics behind the process. Procedia Computer Science, 65, 492-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.09.120
Kraus, R. (2011). Ethical Issues in Online Counseling. In R. Kraus, G. Stricker & C. Speyer (Eds). Online Counseling: a handbook for mental health professionals. Academic Press, 85-106.
Leibert, T., Archer, A., Munson, M., & York, Y. (2006). An exploratory study of client perceptions of internet counseling and the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 28, 69–83. https://doi.org/10.17744/mehc.28.1.f0h37djrw89nv6vb
Lessa, N. (2013). Online therapy: The next generation. The 45th Annual Addictions Institute Conference. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/chat2recovery/online-therapy-workshop
Li,Lau, P., Jaladin, R. A., & Abdullah, H. S. (2013). Understanding the two sides of online counseling and their ethical and legal ramifications. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 1243 -1251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.453
Lovejoy, T. I., Demireva, P. D., Grayson, J. L., & McNamara, J. R. (2009). Advancing the practice of online psychotherapy: An application of Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015153
Mallen, M. J., & Vogel, D. L. (2005). Introduction to the major contribution: Counseling psychology and online counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 761-775. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000005278623
Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., & Rochlen, A. B. (2005a). The practical aspects of online counseling: Ethics, training, technology, and competency. The counseling psychologist, 33(6), 776-818. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0011000005278625
Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., Rochlen, A. B., & Day, S. X. (2005b). Online counseling: Reviewing the literature from a counseling psychology framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 819 871. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000005278624
Manhal-Baugus M. (2001). E-therapy: practical, ethical, and legal issues. Cyberpsychology & behavior : the impact of the Internet, multimedia and virtual reality on behavior and society, 4(5), 551–563. https://doi.org/10.1089/109493101753235142
Maples, M. F., & Han, S. (2008). Cybercounseling in the United States and South Korea: Implications for counseling college students of the millennial generation and the networked generation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(2), 178-183. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00495.x
Martin, A. C. (2013). Legal, clinical, and ethical issues in teletherapy. In J. S. Scharff (Ed.), Technology and mental health. Psychoanalysis online: Mental health, teletherapy, and training (p. 75–84). Karnac Books.
McDonald, A., Eccles, J. A., Fallahkhair, S., & Critchley, H. D. (2020). Online psychotherapy: trailblazing digital healthcare. BJPsych bulletin, 44(2), 60-66. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjb. 2019.66.
Μouratoglou, Ν. (2017). Διαδικτυακή Συμβουλευτική: Διερέυνηση απόψεων συμβούλων σταδιοδρομίας αναφορικά με την εφαρμογή της. [Online Counseling: Investigating the views of career counselors regarding its implementation]. [Diploma Thesis, School of Pedagogy and Technological Education]. http://files.aspete.gr/eppaikpesyp/diplomatikes/2017/2017.nik.mou.pdf.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1Eg2gYNV_SqAWlY_QZ4RM42ptqPgCf5xCsdlTFvmQ--TY4DUaGVd0btsE
Novella, J. K., Ng, K. M., & Samuolis, J. (2020). A comparison of online and in- person counseling outcomes using solution-focused brief therapy for college students with anxiety. Journal of American College Health, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1786101
Papanis, Ε., & Balasa, Α. (2011). Συμβουλευτική μέσω διαδικτύου και επικοινωνία. [Counseling via internet and communication]. Κυριακίδη.
Pontier M., Siddiqui G.F. (2008) A Virtual Therapist That Responds Empathically to Your Answers. In: H.Prendinger, J.Lester, M.Ishizuka (eds) Intelligent Virtual Agents. IVA 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5208. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85483-8_42
Reynolds Jr, D. A. J., Stiles, W. B., Bailer, A. J., & Hughes, M. R. (2013). Impact of exchanges and client–therapist alliance in online-text psychotherapy. Cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking, 16(5), 370- 377. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0195
Richards, D., & Viganò, N. (2012). Online Counseling. In Z. Yan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior (pp. 699-713). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8.ch059
Richards, D., & Viganó, N. (2013). Online counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature. Journal of clinical psychology, 69(9), 994-1011. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21974
Rummell, C.M., & Joyce, N.R. (2010). "So wat do u want to wrk on 2day?": The ethical implications of online counseling. Ethics & Behavior, 20(6), 482- 496. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2010.521450
Sampson Jr, J. P., Kolodinsky, R. W., & Greeno, B. P. (1997). Counseling on the information highway: Future possibilities and potential problems. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75(3), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1997.tb02334.x
Sayers, J., (2021). Online Psychotherapy: Transference and Countertransference Issues. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 37(2), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjp.12624
Spek, V., Cuijpers, P., Nyklícek, I., Riper, H., Keyzer, J., & Pop, V. (2007). Internet- based cognitive behaviour therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 37(3), 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291706008944
Stoll, J., Müller, J. A., & Trachsel, M. (2020). Ethical Issues in Online Psychotherapy: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 993. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00993
Suler, J. (2001). Assessing a person's suitability for online therapy: The ISMHO clinical case study group. Cyberpsychology & behavior, 4(6), 675-679. https://doi.org/10.1089/109493101753376614
Suler, J. (2008). Cybertherapeutic theory and techniques. In A. Barak (Ed.), Psychological Aspects of Cyberspace: Theory, Research, Applications (pp. 102- 128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813740.006
Suler, J. (2011). The psychology of text relationships. Online Counseling, 21- 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-378596-1.00002-2
Sussman, R.J. (2004). Counseling over the Internet: Benefits and challenges in the use of new technologies. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED478216
Tanrikulu I. (2009). Counselors-in-training students’ attitudes towards online counseling. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 785- 788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.140
Valentine, L., McEnery, C., Bell, I., O'Sullivan, S., Pryor, I., Gleeson, J., Bendall S., & Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2020). Blended digital and face-to-face care for firstepisode psychosis treatment in young people: qualitative study. JMIR Mental Health, 7(7), e18990. http://doi.org/10.2196/18990
Zack, J. S. (2008). How sturdy is that digital couch? Legal considerations for mental health professionals who deliver clinical services via the internet. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26(2-4), 333-359. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228830802097083
Zur, O. (2012). TelePsychology or TeleMentalHealth in the Digital Age: The Future is Here. California Psychologist, 45(1), 13-15. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267394837_TelePsychology_or_TeleMentalHealth_in_the_Digital_Age_The_Future_Is_Here
Wells, M., Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Becker-Blease, K. A. (2007). Online mental health treatment: Concerns and considerations. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(3), 453-459. http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9933
Witt, K. J., Oliver, M., & McNichols, C. (2016). Counseling via avatar: professional practice in virtual worlds. International journal for the advancement of counselling, 38(3), 218-236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-016-9269-4