AI, International Relations & Religion

Published: Mar 2, 2024
Artificial Intelligence Religion International Relations Diplomacy
Dimitra Chatzivasileiou
Anastasia Psomiadi
Theoharris William Efthymiou-Egleton
Laura Kassar

This research envisions a future where humans and machines collaboratively enhance decision-making capabilities, fostering harmonious coexistence. Addressing concerns about the potential threat of artificial intelligence (AI) to humanity, the focus shifts to the benevolence of AI entities shaped by human influence. The prospect of AI functioning at a level where authority is wielded by an inaccessible and infallible entity lies in its role as an independent arbiter. This entails the capability to identify cultural barriers and navigate existing political constraints deliberately. Consequently, there is potential for discovering common political ground through algorithmic processes, leading to the resolution of longstanding political issues between states. However, uncertainties persist – perhaps these aspirations may not materialize as expected. The study explores AI's role in international relations and religion, particularly Christianity, emphasizing its potential as an independent arbiter capable of recognizing cultural barriers and navigating political constraints. This research explores the intersection of cultural sensitivity and AI in diplomacy, discussing ethical considerations and benefits. The impact of AI on conflict resolution and peacebuilding is examined, stressing the need for collaborative efforts to establish robust AI standards. Challenges to religious authority, ethical considerations in AI development, and AI's influence on humanitarian aid and religious values are also explored. The research concludes by highlighting the imperative to address algorithmic bias for inclusivity and equitable representation in the digital age.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Commentaries
Download data is not yet available.
Alliance for Peacebuilding. (October 2023). Designing AI for Conflict Prevention & Peacebuilding.
Burton, J., & Christou, G. (2021). Bridging the gap between cyberwar and cyberpeace. International affairs, 97(6), 1727-1747.
Coverston, H. S. (2000). Religious ideation and capital practice: A study of the Florida legislature. The Florida State University.
Cummings, M. L., Roff, H. M., Cukier, K., Parakilas, J., & Bryce, H. (2018). Artificial intelligence and international affairs. Chatham House Report, 7-18.
DiplomatMagazine. (2014, November 2). Diplomacy and its Practice Vs Religious Diplomacy and Dialogue.
Efthymiou, I. (2024). Exploring the Frontier: New and Future Trends in Research. In B. Orlando (Ed.), Innovation Capabilities and Entrepreneurial Opportunities of Smart Working (pp. 48-68). IGI Global.
Efthymiou-Egleton, I. P., Egleton, T. W. E., & Sidiropoulos, S. (2020). Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Politics: Should Political AI be Controlled?. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 5(2).
Farrell, J. A. (2017). When a candidate conspired with a foreign power to win an election. Politico Magazine.
Frąckiewicz, M. (2023, September 8). AI as a Cultural Ambassador: The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Diplomacy. RS, TR, Artificial Intelligence, Newson. Retrieved from
Geraci, R. M. (2008). Apocalyptic AI: Religion and the promise of artificial intelligence. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 76(1), 138-166.
Hall, I. (2002). History, Christianity and diplomacy: Sir Herbert Butterfield and international relations. Review of International Studies, 28(4), 719-736.
Le, Q. V. (2013, May). Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning. In 2013 IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing (pp. 8595-8598). IEEE.
McManners, J. (2001). The Oxford illustrated history of Christianity. Oxford University Press.
Oliver, P. G. (2023, June 18). Algorithmic Bias in the Cultural and Creative Industries: Unmasking the Hidden Prejudices. Data and Beyond. Retrieved from
Panin, S. (2023, May 10). Challenges and Promises of Artificial Intelligence in Religion. Talk About: International Center for Law and Religion Studies.
Pizzi, M., Romanoff, M., & Engelhardt, T. (2020). AI for humanitarian action: Human rights and ethics. International Review of the Red Cross, 102(913), 145-180.
Puzio, A. (2023). Theology Meets AI: Examining Perspectives, Tasks, and Theses on the Intersection of Technology and Religion. In Puzio, A., Kunkel, N., Klinge, H. (Eds). Alexa, How Do You Feel About Religion? Theological Approaches to Technology and Artificial Intelligence (Theology and AI 1). Darmstadt: wbg, 29–41.
Richter, A., & Webb, N. J. (2014). Can Smart Defence work? A suggested approach to increasing risk-and burden-sharing within NATO. Defence & Security Analysis, 30(4), 346-359.
Steele, B. J. (2015, September 26). Review – Religion and the Realist Tradition. E-International Relations. Retrieved from
Thacker, J. (2023, January 17). Ethics in the Age of AI: Defining and Pursuing the Good for Our Good and the Good of Our Communities. Retrieved from
Troy, J. (2013). Religion and Foreign Affairs: Essential Readings. Politics, Religion & Ideology, 14(4), 583-584.
Tzimas, T. (2021). Legal and Ethical Challenges of Artificial Intelligence from an International Law Perspective (Vol. 46). Springer Nature.
Vousinas, G.L., Simitsi, I., Livieri, G., Gkouva, G.C., & Efthymiou, I.P. (2022). Mapping the Road of the Ethical Dilemmas Behind Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Politics and Ethics in New Technologies and AI, 1(1), e31238.
Wood, M. (2017, July 18). Today in History – Extinguishing the Pope’s Power in England. [Web log post]. In Law Library of Congress Blog. Retrieved from