| More

Visiting Holocaust: Related Sites in Germany with Medical Students as an Aid to Teaching Medical Ethics and Human Rights

Views: 157 Downloads: 61
Esteban González-López (http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1083-7897), Rosa Ríos-Cortés (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0922-7063)
Esteban González-López, Rosa Ríos-Cortés

Abstract


Some doctors and nurses played a key role in Nazism. They were responsible for the sterilization and murder of people with disabilities. Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments that had military or racial objectives. What we have learnt about the behaviour of doctors and nurses during the Nazi period enables us to reflect on several issues in present-day medicine (research limitations, decision making at the beginning and the end of a life and the relationship between physicians and the State). In some authors' opinions, the teaching of the medical aspects of the Holocaust could be a new model for education relating to professionalism, Human Rights, Bioethics and the respect of diversity. Teaching Medicine and the Holocaust could be a way of informing doctors and nurses of violations of Ethics in the past. Moreover, a Study Trip to Holocaust and Medicine related sites has a strong pedagogical value. Visiting Holocaust related sites, T4 centres and the places where medical experiments were carried out, has a special meaning for medical students. Additionally, tolerance, anti-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both taught and learned through this curriculum. The following article recounts our experiences of organizing and supervising a study trip with a group of medical students to some Holocaust and medicine-related sites in Berlin and Hadamar (Germany). The study tour included lectures at universities in Düsseldorf and Berlin.

Keywords


Holocaust; Bioethics; Nazi doctors; Professionalism; Human Rights

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bachrach, Susan. “In the Name of Public Health – Nazi Racial Hygiene.” New England Journal of Medicine 351, no. 5 (2004): 417-420.

Bader, Helmut. “The Voice of the Victims and their Families: The Case of Martin Bader.” In Silence, Scapegoats, Self-Reflection. The Shadow of Nazi Medical Crimes on Medicine and Bioethics, edited by Etienne Lepicard, Volker Roelcke, and Sascha Topp, 103-112. Göttingen: V&R Unipress, 2014.

Bauer, Yehuda. “Aktion T4/ ‘Euthanasia.’” In Mass Murder of People with Disabilities and the Holocaust, edited by Brigitte Bailer, and Juliane Wetzel, 19-31. Berlin: Metropol Verlag & International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, 2019.

Caplan, Arthur L. “How Did Medicine Go So Wrong.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 53-92. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 1992.

Chelouche, Tessa. “Medicine and the Holocaust: Lessons for Present and Future Physicians.” Medicine and Law 27, no. 4 (2008): 787-804.

Geiderman, Joel M. “Physician Complicity in the Holocaust: Historical Review and Reflections on Emergency Medicine in the 21st Century, Part I.” Academic Emergency Medicine 9, no. 3 (2002): 223-231.

González-López, E., and R. Ríos-Cortés. “Medical Students’ Opinions on Some Bioethical Issues before and after a Holocaust and Medicine Course.” Israeli Medical Association Journal 21, no. 4 (2019): 298.

González-López, E., and R. Ríos-Cortés. “Visiting Holocaust and Medicine-related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.” Israeli Medical Association Journal 18, no. 5 (2016): 257-260.

Grodin, Michael A. “Historical Origins of the Nuremberg Code.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Human Rights in Human Experimentation, edited by George J. Annas, and Michael A. Grodin, 121-144. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hildebrant, S. “The Women on Stieve’s List: Victims of National Socialism Whose Bodies Were Used for Anatomical Research.” Clinical Anatomy 26, no. 1 (2013): 3-21.

Ley, A., and G. Morsch. “Compulsory Sterilisation and Compulsory Castration.” In Medical Care and Crime, The Infirmary at Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp 1936-1945, edited by Astrid Ley, and Günther Morsch, 275-306. Berlin: Metropol, 2007.

Ley, A., and G. Morsch. “Medical Experiments in Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp.” In Medical Care and Crime, The Infirmary at Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp 1936-1945, edited by Astrid Ley, and Günther Morsch, 329-378. Berlin: Metropol, 2007.

Lilienthal, G. “Regional Psychiatric Clinic of Hadamar.” In How Healing Becomes Killing. Eugenics. Euthanasia. Extermination, edited by Ursula Ghering-Münzel, Marci Regan Dallas, and Ira D. Perry, 87-93. Houston: Holocaust Museum Houston, 2007.

Oberman, A. S., T. Brosh-Nissimov, and N. Ash. “Medicine and the Holocaust: A Visit to the Nazi Death Camps as a Means of Teaching Medical Ethics in the Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps.” Journal of Medical Ethics 36, no. 12 (2010): 821-826.

Reis, S. P., H. S. Wald, and P. Weindling. “The Holocaust, Medicine and Becoming a Physician: The Crucial Role of Education.” Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 8 (2019): 55-61.

Strous, R. D. “Dr. Irmfried Eberl (1910-1948): Mass Murdering MD.” Israeli Medical Association Journal 11, no. 4 (2009): 216-218.

Weindling, P. “Peak Years, 1942 to 1944.” In Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments. Science and Suffering in the Holocaust, edited by Paul Weindling, 69-176. London: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Weindling, P. “Targeting Victims.” In Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments. Science and Suffering in the Holocaust, edited by Paul Weindling, 127-138. London: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Winkelmann, A., and U. Schagen. “Hermann Stieve’s Clinical-anatomical Research on Executed Women during the ‘Third Reich.’” Clinical Anatomy 22, no. 2 (2009): 163-171.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Esteban González-López, Rosa Ríos-Cortés

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.