Local communities, Marine Protected Areas and diving tourism in Cyclades


Published: Ιαν 27, 2021
Keywords:
Marine Projected Areas diving tourism deliberation local stakeholders local economy
Lydia Avrami
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5528-216X
Nikos Demertzis
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3010-4463
Antonis Armenakis
Abstract

This study aims to map and compare the perceptions and views of local stakeholders and interest groups of three Cyclades islands with different level of tourism development (Kythnos, Milos, Santorini) as for the newly designated Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and the development of diving tourism. In addition, the main factors that are expected to contribute or undermine the governance, the management and the ultimately effectiveness of MPAs in the above areas are explored. To this end, personal interviews were conducted with all local stakeholders, who are directly or indirectly involved in the management of MPAs and the development of diving tourism.The analysis demonstrates the substantial lack of information of local stakeholders and interest groups about MPAs. In addition, significant differences in their views are observed, which seem to be linked to the level of tourism development of each island, the structure of local economy and the local consultations conducted about the MPA designation in the past.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Articles
Downloads
Download data is not yet available.
Author Biographies
Lydia Avrami, Εθνικό Κέντρο Κοινωνικών Ερευνών (ΕΚΚΕ) και ΕΚΠΑ
Δρ. Πολιτικής Επιστήμης. Επιστημονικός Συνεργάτις, Εθνικό Κέντρο Κοινωνικών Ερευνών (ΕΚΚΕ) και Τμήμα Πολιτικής Επιστήμης και Δημόσιας Διοίκησης, ΕΚΠΑ
Nikos Demertzis, Εθνικό Κέντρο Κοινωνικών Ερευνών (ΕΚΚΕ) και ΕΚΠΑ
Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Επικοινωνίας και ΜΜΕ, ΕΚΠΑ και Πρόεδρος του Εθνικού Κέντρου Κοινωνικών Ερευνών (ΕΚΚΕ)
References
Δεμερτζής, Ν. (επιμ.) (2010). Διαβούλευση. Επιστήμη και Κοινωνία: Επιθεώρηση Πολιτικής και Ηθικής Θεωρίας, 24.
Λιάλιος, Γ. (2020). Τι αλλάζει στη διαχείριση των προστατευόμενων περιοχών της Ελλάδας. Η Καθημερινή, 13 Φεβρουαρίου.
ΥΠΕΝ (2013). Νέο ειδικό χωροταξικό πλαίσιο για τον τουρισμό 2013. http://www.ypeka.gr/Default.aspx?tabid=785&sni[524]=2841&language=el-GR
Bennett, N.J., and Dearden, P. (2014). From measuring outcomes to providing inputs: Governance, management, and local development for more effective marine protected areas. Marine Policy, 50 (A), pp. 96-110.
Bustamante, R., Wellington, J., and Troya, R. (2001). In Galápagos, clashes between fishers and managers jeopardize conservation efforts. MPA News, 2 (6), pp. 1-3.
Christie, P. (2004). Marine protected areas as biological successes and social failures in Southeast Asia. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 42, pp. 155-164.
Da Silva, P.P. (2004). From common property to co-management: lesson from Brazil's first maritime extractive reserve. Marine policy, 28 (5), pp. 419-428.
Dharmaratne, G., Yee Sang, F. and Walling, L.J. (2000). Tourism potentials for financing protected areas, Annals of Tourism Research, 27 (3), pp. 590-610.
Dimech, M., Darmanin, M., Smith, I., Kaiser, M. and Schembri P. (2009). Fishers’ perception of a 35-year old exclusive fisheries management zone. Biological Conservation, 142, pp. 2691-2702.
Dimmock., K. and Musa, M. (2015). Scuba Diving Tourism System: A framework for collaborative management and sustainability. Marine Policy, 54, pp. 52-58.
Dixon, J.A., Scura, L.F. and Van't Hof, T. (1993). Meeting ecological and economic goals: marine parks in the Caribbean. Ambio, 22 (2-3), pp. 117-25.
European Commission (2019). Flash Eurobarometer 379: attitudes towards biodiversity. Brussels: European Commission’s Directorate-General for Communication.
Ferse, S.C.A., Máñez Costa, M., Máñez, K.S., Adhuri, D.S. and Glaser, M. (2010). Allies, not aliens: increasing the role of local communities in marine protected area implementation. Environmental Conservation, 37 (1), pp. 23-34.
Giakoumi, S., McGowan, J., Mills, M., Beger, M., Bustamante, R.H., Charles, A., Christie, P., Fox, M., Garcia-Borboroglu, P., Gelcich, S., Guidetti, P., Mackelworth, P., Gier, L., Christi, P. and Amolo, R. (2017) Community perceptions of scuba dive tourism development in Bien Unido, Bohol island, Philippines, Journal of Coastal Conservation, 21, pp. 153-166.
Gill, D.A., Schuhmann, P.W., Oxenford, H.A. (2015). Recreational diver preferences for reef fish attributes: economic implications of future change. Ecological Economics, 111 (C), pp. 48-57.
Halik, A., Verweij, M. and Schlüter, A. (2018). How marine protected areas are governed: a cultural theory perspective. Sustainability, 10 (252). doi: 10.3390/su10010252.
Hargreaves-Allen, V., Mourato, S. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011). A global evaluation of coral reef management performance: are MPAs producing conservation and socio-economic improvements? Environmental Management, 47 (4), pp. 684-700.
Helvey, M. (2004). Seeking consensus on designing marine protected areas: keeping the fishing community engaged. Coastal Management 32, pp. 173-190.
Humphreys, J. and Herbert, R.J.H (2018). Marine protected areas: science, policy and management.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 215, pp. 215-218.
Jentoft, S., Pascual-Fernandez, J., De la Cruz Modino, R., Gonzalez-Ramallal, M. and Chuenpagdee, R. (2012). What stakeholders think about marine protected areas: case studies from Spain. Human Ecology, 40 (2), pp. 185-197.
Jones, P. (2008). Fishing industry and related perspectives on the issues raised by no-take marine protected area proposals. Marine Policy, 32, pp. 749-758.
Jones, P.J.S., Qiu, W. and De Santo, E.M. (2013). Governing marine protected areas: social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity, Marine Policy, 41, pp. 5-13
Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. (1992). Guidelines for establishing marine protected areas. A marine conservation and development report. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Lester, S.E., Halpern, B.S., Grorud-Colvert, K., Lubchenco, J., Ruttenberg, B.I., Gaines, S.D., Airamé, S., and Warner, R.R. (2009). Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 384, pp. 33-46.
Leverington, F., Costa, K.L., Courrau, J., Pavese, H., Nolte, Ch., Marr, M., Coad, L., Burgess, N., Bomhard, B. and Hockings, M. (2010a). Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas - a global study (2nd edition). Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland.
Leverington, F., Costa, K.L., Pavese, H., Lisle, A. and Hockings, M. (2010b). A global analysis of protected area management effectiveness. Environmental Management, 46 (5), pp. 685-98.
Lockwood, M., Davidson, J., Curtis, A., Stratford, E., and Griffith, R. (2010) Governance principles for natural resource management, Society & Natural Resources, 23 (10), pp. 986-1001.
Lucrezi, S., Milanese, M., Markantonatou, V., Cerrano, C., Sar, A., Palma, M. and Saayman, M. (2017). Scuba diving tourism systems and sustainability: perceptions by the scuba diving industry in two marine protected areas. Tourism Management, 59, pp. 385-403.
Mangi, S.C. and Austen, M.C. (2008). Perceptions of stakeholders towards objectives and zoning of marine-protected areas in southern Europe. Journal for Nature Conservation, 16 (4), pp. 271-280.
Parsons, G.R. and Thur, S.M. (2008). Valuing changes in the quality of coral reef ecosystems: a stated preference study of scuba diving in the Bonaire national marine park. Environmental Resource Economics, 40(4), pp. 593-608.
Pieraccini, M. and Cardwell, E. (2017). Divergent perceptions of new marine protected areas: comparing legal consciousness in Scilly and Barra, UK. Ocean & Coastal Management, 119, pp. 21-29.
Pita, C., Graham, J.P., Theodossiou, I. and Macpherson, K. (2011). An overview of commercial fisher’s attitudes towards marine protected areas. Hydrobiologia, 670, pp. 289-306.
Pomeroy, R.S, and Duvere, F. (2008). The engagement of stakeholders in the marine spatial planning process. Marine Policy, 32, pp. 816-822.
Pomeroy, R.S., Mascia, M.B. and Pollnac, R.B. (2007). Marine Protected Areas: the social dimension. In FAO (Ed.), Report and documentation of the expert workshop on marine protected areas and fisheries management: review of issues and considerations. FAO Fisheries Report No. 825, pp. 149-181.
Pomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E., and Watson, L.M. (2004). How is your MPA doing? a guidebook of natural and social indicators for evaluating marine protected area management effectiveness. IUCN, Gland (Switzerland) and Cambridge (UK).
Potts, T., Pita, C., O’Higgins, T. and Mee, L. (2016). Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments. Marine Policy, 72, pp. 59-66.
Roberts, C.M. and Polunin, N.V.C. (1993). Marine reserves: simple solutions to managing complex fisheries? Ambio, 22 (6), pp. 363-368.
Roberts, T. and Jones, P.J.S. (2013). North east Kent European marine site: overcoming barriers to conservation through community engagement. Marine Policy, 41(C), pp. 33-40.
Salm, R.V., Clark, J.R. and Siirila, E. (2000). Marine and coastal protected areas: a guide for planners and managers. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
The World Bank (2006). Scaling up marine management-the role of marine protected areas, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Thorpe, A., Failler, P. and Bavinck, J.M. (2011). Marine protected areas (MPAs) special feature: editorial.Environmental Management, 47 (4), pp. 519-524.
Most read articles by the same author(s)