Pityogenes chalcographus (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) at the southernmost borderline of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Greece

Published: Nov 7, 2017
Pityogenes chalcographus Scolytinae bark beetles pheromone traps Norway spruce Picea abies Greece
D.N. Avtzis
W. Arthofer
C. Stauffer
N. Avtzis
R. Wegensteiner
The six toothed bark beetle, Pityogenes chalcographus L. (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is a widely distributed pest in Europe, infesting mainly Norway spruce (Picea abies) as well as other conifer species such as Pinus sp., Abies alba, Larix deciduas, L. sibirica and Pseudotsuga douglasii. Even though the distribution of this bark beetle coincides that of its main host tree, P. abies, the occurrence of P. chalcographus has never been recorded in the spruce forest of Elatia-Drama, Northern Greece, which is the southernmost area of the natural, autochthonous distribution of P. abies. In this study we installed five pheromone traps baited with chalcogran dispensers in the forest of Elatia. The total number of bark beetles attracted to these traps exceeded several thousands of individuals. Norway spruce trees growing in the natural forest of Elatia demonstrate low vigor, something that can be attributed to the marginal environmental conditions in concert with the effects of climate change. The combination of these factors inhibits the regular growth of spruce, rendering trees more susceptible to the attack of P. chalcographus.
Article Details
  • Section
  • Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Arabatzis, T.H. 1998. Shrubs and Trees in Greece I. Oikologiki Kinisi Dramas, Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Drama (in Greek).
Avtzis, D.N., W. Arthofer and C. Stauffer. 2008. Sympatric occurrence of diverged mtDNA lineages of Pityogenes chalcographus (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) in Europe. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 94: 331-340
Berryman, A.A. 1972. Resistance of conifers to invasion by bark beetles fungus associations. Bioscience 22: 598-602.
Bertheau, C., A. Salle, G. Roux-Morabito, J. Garcia, G. Certain and F. Lieutier 2009. Preference–performance relationship and influence of plant relatedness on host use by Pityogenes chalcographus L. Agric. For. Entomol. 11: 389-396.
Birch, M.C., D.M. Light, D.L. Wood, L.E. Browne, R.M. Silverstein, B.J. Bergot, G. Ohloff, J.R. West and J.C. Young. 1980. Pheromonal attraction and allomonal interruption of Ips pini in California by the two entantiomers of ipsdienol. J. Chem. Ecol. 6: 703-717.
Bokhorst, S., A. Huiskes, P. Convey and R. Aerts. 2007. The effect of environmental change on vascular plant and cryptogam communities from the Fakland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic. BMC Biol. 7: 1-13.
Borden, J.H. 1985. Aggregation pheromones. In: Kerkut, G.A. and L.I. Gilbert [Eds], Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 275-285 pp.
Bouget, C. and P. Duelli. 2004. The effects of windthrow on forest insect communities: a literature review. Biol. Conserv. 118: 281-299.
Boyer, J.S. 1995. Biochemical and biophysical aspects of water deficits and the predisposition to disease. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 33: 251-274.
Bryant, J. and K.F. Raffa. 1995. Chemical Antiherbivore Defense. In: B.L. Gartner [Ed.] Stems and Trunks in Plant Form and Function. Academic Press. 365-381 pp.
Byers, J.A., G. Birgersson, J. Löfqvist, M. Appelgren and G. Bergström. 1990. Isolation of pheromone synergists of bark beetle, Pityogenes chalcographus, from complex insect-plant odors by fractionation and substractive-combination bioassay. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 861-876.
Byers, J.A. 2004. Chemical ecology of bark beetles in a complex olfactory landscape. In: Lieutier, F., K.R. Day, A. Battisti, J.C. Grégoire and H. Evans [Eds.]. Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 89-134 pp.
Chararas, C. 1962. Scolytides des Coniferes. Paris, Lechevalier.
Christiansen, E. and A. Bakke. 1988. The spruce bark beetle of Eurasia. In: A.A. Berryman [Ed.] Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. Plenum, New York, New York. 479-503 pp.
Christiansen, E., R.H. Waring and A.A. Berryman. 1987. Resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack: searching for general relationships. For. Ecol. Manage. 22: 89-106.
Clancy, K.M., R.M. Wagner and P.B. Reich. 1995. Ecophysiology and insect herbivory. In: Smith, W.K. and P.B. Reich [Eds.] Resource physiology of conifers, acquisition, allocation and utilisation. Smith, W.K. and Reich P.B. (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego. 125-180 pp.
Croisé, L., F. Lieutier, H. Chochard and E. Dreyer. 2001. Effects of drought stress and high density stem inoculations with Leptographium wingfieldii on hydraulic properties of young Scots pine trees. Tree Physiol. 21: 427-436.
Diaz, H.F. and N.E. Graham. 1996. Recent changes in tropical freezing heights and the role of sea surface temperature. Nature 383: 152-155.
Dreyer, E., N. Guérard, F. Lieutier, F. Pasquier- Barré, B. Lung and D. Piou. 2002. Interactions between nutrient and water supply to potted Pinys sylvestris trees and their susceptibility to several pests and pathogens. In: F. Lieutier [Ed.] Effects of water and nutrient stress on pine susceptibility to various pest and disease guilds. Final scientific report of the EU project FAIR 3 CT96-1854.
Dunn, J.P. and P.L. Jr. Lorio. 1993. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth, and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environ. Entomol. 22: 948- 957.
Easterling, D.R., B. Horton, P.D. Jones, T.C. Peterson, T.R. Karl, D.E. Parker, M.J. Salinger, V. Razuvayev, N. Plummer, P. Jamason and C.K. Folland. 1997. Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277: 363-367.
Ehnström, B., B. Bejer-Petersen, K. Löyttyniemi and S. Tvermyr. 1974. Insect pests of the Nordic countries 1967-1971. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 40: 37-47.
Eidmann, H. 1992. Impact of bark beetles on forests and forestry in Sweden. J. Appl. Entomol. 114: 193-200.
Francke, W., V. Heemann, B. Gerken, J.A. A. Renwick and J.P. Vité. 1977. 2-Ethyl- 1,6 - dioxaspiro[4.4]nonane, principal aggregation pheromone of Pityogenes chalcographus (L.). Naturwissenschaften 64: 590-591.
Führer, E. and B. Mühlenbrock. 1983. Brutexperimente mit Pityogenes chalcographus L. an verschiedenen Nadelbaumarten. Z. Angew. Entomol. 96: 228–232.
Führer, E. and M. Csaba. 2005. Climate change – forest Ecosystems & Landscapes. In: Effect of Climate Change on Carbon Sequestration and Stability of the Hungarian Forest Cover, Forest Research Institute Svolen, 19-22 October 2005, 37-38. http://www.fris.sk/en/lvu/ podujatia/2005/climate_change/PRESEN TATIONS/114%20Zvolen.pdf
Göthlin, E., L.M. Schroeder and Å. Lindelöw. 2000. Attacks by Ips typographus and Pityogenes chalcographus on windthrown spruces (Picea abies ) during the two years following a storm-felling. Scandinavian J. For. Res. 15: 542 – 549.
Hard, J.S. 1985. Spruce bark beetle attacks slowly growing spruce. For. Sci. 31: 839- 850.
Kailidis, D.S. 1991. Forest Entomology and Zoology. 4th edn. Christodoulidis Press. Thessaloniki. Greece. 536pp. (In Greek)
Kalkstein, L.S. 1976. Effects of climatic stress upon outbreaks of the southern pine beetle. Environ. Entomol. 5: 653- 658.
Kellomäki, S., T. Karjalainen, F. Mohren and T. Lapveteläinen. 2000. Expert Assessments on the Likely Impacts of Climate Change on Forests and Forestry in Europe. European Forest Institute. http://www.efi.fi/ attachment/f5d80ba3c1b89242106f2f97a e8e3894/595f8f71578118c8ac3d4cd0e5b 73efa/EFI_Proc34.pdf
Kirisits, T. 2004. Fungal associates of European bark beetles with special emphasis on the ophiostomatoid fungi. In: Lieutier, F., K.R. Day, A. Battisti, J.C. Grégoire and H. Evans [Eds.]. Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 185-223 pp.
Knizek, M., C. Stauffer, D.N. Avtzis and R. Wegensteiner. 2005. Pityogenes chalcographus In: Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabicompendium.org /fc CD-ROM version ISBN: 0 85199 031 2.
Knutson, T.R. and R. Tuleya. 2004. Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. J. Clim. 17: 3477-3495.
Lanier, G.N., M.C. Birch, R.F. Schmitz and M.M. Furniss. 1972. Pheromones of Ips pini: Variation in response among three populations. Can. Entomol. 104: 1917- 1923.
Larsson, S., R. Oren, R.H. Waring and J.W. Barrett. 1983. Attacks of mountain pine beetle as related to tree vigor of ponderosa pine. For. Sci. 29: 395-402.
Lekander, B. 1972. Den sextandaleytterligare ett bekymmer för svenskt skogsbruk. Skogen 59: 239-241. (In Swedish)
Lieutier, F. 2004. Host resistance to bark beetles and its variations. In: Lieutier, F., K.R. Day, A. Battisti, J.C. Grégoire and H. Evans [Eds.]. Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 135-180 pp.
Lorio, P.L. and J.D. Hodges. 1977. Tree water status affects induced southern pine beetle attacks and brood production. USDA Forest Service Research Paper 135 Lorio, P.L., F.M. Stephen and T.D. Paine. 1995. Environment and ontogeny modify loblolly pine response to induced acute water deficits and bark beetle attacks. For. Ecol. Manage. 73: 97-101.
Martinic, I. and M. Sporcic. 2005. Climate change – forest Ecosystems & Landscapes. In: Integrating Global Climate Changes into Core Forestry Activities. Forest Research Institute Svolen, 19-22 October 2005, 44-46. http://www.fris.sk/ en/lvu/podujatia/2005/climate_change/proceedings_climate-change.pdf
Mattson, W.J. and R.A. Haack. 1987. The role of drought in outbreaks of planteating insects. Bioscience 37: 110-118
Mulock, P. and E. Christiansen. 1986. The threshold of succesful attack by Ips typographus on Picea abies: a field experiment. For. Ecol. Manage. 14: 125- 132.
Paine, T.D., K.F. Raffa and T.C. Harrington. 1997. Interactions among scolytids bark beetles, their associated fungi, and live host conifers. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 179-206.
Pfeffer, A. 1995. Zentral- und westpalaearktische Borken- und Kenkäfer. Pro Entomologia, c/o Naturhistorisches Museum Basel. Basel.
Postner, M. 1974. Scolytidae, Borkenkäfer. In W. Schwenke [Ed.] Die Forstschädlinge Europas. Berlin, Paul Parey.
Raffa, K.F., B.H. Aukema, B.J. Bentz, A.L. Carroll, J.A. Hicke, M.G. Turner and W.H. Romme. 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: The dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. Bioscience 6: 501- 517.
Sandeness, A. and H. Sollheim. 2002. Variation in tree size and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica in a monoclonal stand of Picea abies. Scandinavian J. For. Res. 17: 522-528.
Sauvard, D. 2004. General biology of bark beetles. In: Lieutier, F., K.R. Day, A. Battisti, J.C. Grégoire and H. Evans [Eds.]. Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 63-88 pp.
Schlyter, F. and G. Birgersson. 1999. Forest Beetles. In: Hardie, J. and A.K. Minks [Eds.] Pheromones in Non-Lepidopteran Insects Associated with Agricultural Plants. CAB International, Oxford U.K. 113-148 pp.
Schroeder, L.M. 2001. Tree mortality by the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in storm-disturbed stands. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 6: 169-175.
Schwerdtfeger, F. 1929. Ein Beitrag zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Borkenkafers Pityogenes chalcographus L.. Z. Angew. Entom. 15: 335-427.
Seybold, S.J., T. Ohtsuka, D.L. Wood and I. Kubo. 1995. Enantiomeric composition of ipsdienol, a chemotaxonomic character of the North American populations of Ips spp. in the pini subgeneric group (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 21: 995-1016.
Smiris, P. 1985. Die Struktur im Urwald von Paranestion. Scientific Annals of the Department of Forestry and Natural Environment 17: 597-668.
Thalenhorst, W. 1958. Grundzüge der populationsdynamik des grössen Fichten-borkenkäfer Ips typographus L. Schriftenreihe der Forstlichen Fakultät der Universität Göttingen 21.
Tillman, J.A., S.J. Seybold, R.A. Jurenka and G.J. Blomquist. 1999. Insect pheromones – an overview of biosynthesis and endocrine regulation. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29: 481-514.
Trenberth, K.E., A. Dai, R.M. Rasmussen and D.B. Parsons. 2003. The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 84: 1205-1217.
Vité, J.P. and D.L. Wood. 1961. A study of the applicability of the measurement of oleoresin exudation pressure in determining susceptibility of second-growth ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestation. Contribution Boyce Thompson Institute 21: 37-66.
Waring, R.H. and G.B. Pitman. 1983. Physiological stress in lodgepole pine stands to change susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack. Ecology 66: 889-897.
Wood, S.L. and D.E. Bright. 1992. A Catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. No 13, Vol. A, 1-833 & Vol. B, 835-1553.