| More

Temporal asynchrony, spatial segregation and seasonal abundance of aphids on apple trees

Views: 183 Downloads: 111
D. Perdikis, D. Lykouressis, G. Mitropoulou, P. Tsiantis
D. Perdikis, D. Lykouressis, G. Mitropoulou, P. Tsiantis


The species composition and seasonal abundance of aphids and their natural enemies were investigated in an apple orchard located in central Peloponnese. For that purpose shoots were collected at weekly intervals. The aphid species Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Eriosomatidae) were recorded. In both years of the study, A. pomi developed higher populations than the other two species. The population of A. pomi was high in June and July. D. plantaginea was present in April and May, with high numbers mainly in May, whilst E. lanigerum was recorded in low numbers from May to July. The number of aphids was not found to differ significantly between samples collected from the northern and southern part of the trees. The species composition of aphid population on each sampled shoot, documented spatial segregation between A. pomi and D. plantaginea. It was proved that the eggs were more commonly laid near the buds of the central part of the twigs. The natural enemies found were predators belonging to the families of Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Syrphidae and Anthocoridae. Generally, their numbers were low.


Aphis pomi; Dysaphis plantaginea; Eriosoma lanigerum; apple orchard; egg distribution

Full Text:



Altieri, M.A. and L.L. Schmidt. 1986. Cover crops affect insect and spider populations in apple orchards. California Agric. 40: 15-17.

Blackman, R.L. and V.F. Eastop. 1985. Aphids on the World's Crops: An Identification Guide. Chichester U.K., John Wiley. 466 pp.

Blommers, L.H.M. 1994. Integrated Pest Management in European Apple Orchards. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 39: 213-241.

Bonnemaison, L. 1972. Aphides et traitements insecticides du pommier. I. Facteurs des pullulations aphidiennes sur le pommier. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 4: 129-149.

Bouchard, D., J.C. Pilon and J.C. Tourneur. 1986. Role of entomophagous insects in controlling the apple aphid, Aphis pomi, in southwestern Quebec. In I. Hodek [Ed.] Ecology of Aphidophaga, Akademia Prague, W. Junk, Dordrecht. pp. 369-374.

Brown, P.G. 1991. Organic Apple Production Guide for Nova Scotia (Tree Fruit Fact Sheet). Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing, Kentville, 27 pp.

Brown, M.W., H.W. Hogmire and J.J. Schmitt. 1995. Competitive displacement of apple aphids by spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on apple as mediated by human activities. Environ. Entomol. 24: 1581-1591.

Brown, M.W. and J.J. Schmitt. 1990. Growth reduction in nonbearing apple trees by wooly apple aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on roots. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1526-1530.

Carroll, D.P. and S.C. Hoyt. 1984. Natural enemies and their effects on apple aphid colonies (Aphis pomi De Geer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on young apple trees in central Washington. Environ. Entomol. 13: 469-481.

Cutright, C.R. 1930. Additional notes of Aphis pomi. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 738-741.

Denno, R.F., M.S. McClure and J.R. Ott. 1995. Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects: Competition reexamined and resurrected. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 40: 297-331.

Dickler, E. 1983. Aspects of integrated control in some temperate fruit crops. In Proc. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. vol. 3: 971-983.

Eastop, V.F. and H.F. van Emden. 1972. The insect material. In: H.F. van Emden [Ed.] Aphid Technology. Academic Press, London. 1-45 pp.

Forrest, J.M.S. and A.F.G. Dixon. 1975. The induction of leaf- roll galls by the apple aphids Dysaphis devecta and D. plantaginea (Hom., Aphididae). Ann. Appl. Biol. 81: 281- 288.

Gianoli, E. 2000. Competition in cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants. Environ. Entomol. 29: 213-219.

Graf, B., J. Baumgaertner and V. Delucchi. 1985. Life table statistics of three apple aphids, Dysaphis plantaginea, Rhopalosiphum insertum, and Aphis pomi (Homoptera, Aphididae), at constant temperatures. Z. Angew. Entomol. 99: 285- 294.

Grasswitz, T.R. and E.C. Burts. 1995. Effect of native natural enemies and augmentative releases of Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister and Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) on the population dynamics of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer. Int. J. Pest Manag. 41:176-183.

Hagley, E.A.C. 1989. Release of Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for control of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae). Can. Entomol. 121: 309-314.

Haley, S. and E.J. Hogue. 1990. Ground cover influence on apple aphid Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae), and its predators in a young apple orchard. Crop Prot. 9: 225-230.

Holdsworth, R.P. 1970. Aphids and aphid enemies: effect of integrated control in an Ohio apple orchard (Hem., Hom., Aphididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 530-535.

Hoyt, S.C. and H.F. Madsen. 1960. Dispersal behaviour of the first instar nymphs of the wooly apple aphid. Hilgardia 30: 267-299.

Hull, L.A. and J.W. Grimm. 1983. Sampling schemes for estimating populations of the apple aphid, Aphis pomi (Homoptera: Aphididae), on apple. Environ. Entomol. 12: 1581- 1586.

Kozar, F., M.W. Brown and G. Lightner. 1994. Spatial distribution of homopteran pests and beneficial insects in an orchard and its connection with ecological plant-protection. J. Appl. Entomol. 117: 519-529.

Madsen, H.F., P.H. Westigard and L.A. Falcon. 1961. Evaluation of insecticides and sampling methods against the apple aphid Aphis pomi. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 892-894.

Niemczyk, E. 1988. Effectiveness of aphidophaga in apple orchards. In: Niemczyk, E. and Dixon, A.F.G. [Eds.] Ecology and Effectiveness of Aphidophaga. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. 215-217 pp.

Oatman, E.R. and E.F. Legner. 1961. Bionomics of apple aphid, Aphis pomi, on young non bearing apple trees. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 1034-1037.

SAS Institute. 2006. JMP, version 6.0.2. SAS Institute Inc.

Stichel, W., 1962. Illustrierte Bestimmungs-tabellen der Wanzen. II. Europa (Hemiptera-Heteroptera Europae). Berlin-Hermsdorf. Vols. 1-4, 2.173pp.

Stewart, H.C. and S.J. Walde. 1997. The dynamics of Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on apple in Nova Scotia. Can. Entomol. 129: 627-636.

Wagner, E. 1952. Die Europäischen Arten der Gattung Orius Wff. (Hem. Het. Anthocoridae). Notulae Entomol. 32: 22-59.

Westigard, P.H. and H.F. Madsen. 1965. Studies on the bionomics of summer generations in California of the apple aphid Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae). Can. Entomol. 97: 1107-1114.

Wyss, E. 1995. The effects of weed strips on aphids and aphidophagous predators in an apple orchard. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 75: 43-49.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 D. Perdikis, D. Lykouressis, G. Mitropoulou, P. Tsiantis