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Larval development and timeliness of pupation in the laboratory of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), on certain diets, under various Ρhοtoperiοd, tempera­ture, aeration and humidity conditions


Published: Jan 8, 1988
Keywords:
Amyelois transitella Navel orangeworm Diapause Insect dormancy Rate of insect develpment Illumination effects Humidity effects
Μ. Ε. Tzanakakis
Μ. Μ. Barnes
Abstract
Development of larvae of the navel orangeworm, Arn.ielois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), was studied under various photoperiods, temperatures and larval diets, in an effort to induce dormancy. Ready – to – batch eggs or neonate larvae were placed in transparent vials half – full of diet. Fully grown larvae not pupating within 14 days at 26.7oC and L:D 16:8 were considered as being in dormancy. With artificial larval diets containing bran, yeast, vitamins, and fortified or not with a high protein cereal and egg yolk, none of the treatments induced dormancy to a substantial percentage of laboratory stock or wild larvae. With dry walnut meats, larval growth was slower and survival much lower than with the artificial diets. With walnut meats, when eggs were incubated at 32.2oC and L:D 0:24, a certain percentage of grown larvae of the laboratory stock underwent dormancy when grown as larvae under the conditions that follow: 40% at 21oC and L:D 12:12, 17% at 21oC and L:D 0:24, 19% at 26.7oC and L:D 16:8, and 22% at 26.7oC and L:D 0:24 for the first 14 days than at 21oC and L:D 8:16 for the rest of larval life. When both embrya and larvae developed at 21oC and L:D 0:24, 17% of the larvae underwent dormancy. Yet, the relatively small number of grown larvae in the groups fed walnut meats suggests further work for the occurrence of dormancy in this insect to be proven. No larvae developed on straight brewers’ yeast powder. Straight soybean flour or 9:1 and 7:3 mixtures of it with yeast powder allowed the production of grown larvae, pupae and adults of normal appearance. The rate of larval growth on the soy:yeast diets was significantly slower than on a reference diet. At 26.7oC, a L:D 16:8 photoperiod was as good as a 14:10 one. Continuous darkness resulted in significantly reduced yield in adults and rate of larval growth. High relative humidity on the surface of the diet allowed excessive growth of fungi on and in the soy:yeast diets and resulted in a much faster larval growth. Larvae developed well on dry walnut meats and in cracked dry and water-soaked walnuts. Inside the walnuts the rate of larval growth was uneven, some larvae being still fairly small on the 53rd day at 26.7oC, while the majority was fully grown or had already pupated.
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