| More

Geographic Variation of Diapause Induction and Termination in the Spider Mite Tetrαnychus urticαe: Α mini-review

Views: 141 Downloads: 137
D. S. Koveos, A. Veerman
D. S. Koveos, A. Veerman


In eight strains of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), originating from different localities in Europe, the critical daylength for diapause induction and termination was almost the same in each strain but varied with the latitudinal origin of the strains; critical daylength was shorter in strains originating from lower latitudes and longer in those from higher latitudes. Diapause intensity, measured as the period of chilling required for diapause termination under a short day photoperiod (LD 10:14) and 19°C, again varied with the latitudinal origin of each strain, being higher the more northern the origin of the strain. An exception were two mountain strains which showed a longer critical daylength and a deeper diapause than expected on the basis of their latitudinal origin. The number of long-day (LD 17:7) cycles required for 50% diapause termination after a certain period of chilling was higher in the northern and lower in the southern strains. These results indicate that geographic strains of T urticae may differ considerably in their diapause attributes, which may be explained as an adaptation to local climatic conditions. The great plasticity of the diapause response may, among other factors, have been responsible for the wide distribution of this mite species.


Photoperiodism; Geographic variation; Diapause; Spider mites; Tetranychus urticae

Full Text:



Beach. R. 1978. The required day number and timely induction of diapause in geographic strains of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus. J. Insect Physiol. 24: 449- 455.

Beck, S.D. 1980. Insect Photoperiodism. Second Edn. Academic Press, New York.

Bondarenko. N.V 1958. Diapause peculiarities in Tetranychus urticae Koch. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 37: 1012-1023 (in Russian).

Bondarenko, N.V. and Kuan Khay-Yuan 1958. Peculiarities in the origin of diapause in different geographical populations of the spider mite. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 119: 1247-1250.

Bradshaw, W.E. and CM. Holzaphel 1983. Life cycle strategics in Wyeomyia smilhii: seasonal and geographic adaptations. In: V.K. Brown and I. Hodek (Eds): Diapause and Life Cycle Strategies in Insects: 167- 185. Junk. The Hague.

Danks. H.V 1987. Insect Dormancy: An Ecological Perspective. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Natural Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.

Danilevskii. A.S. 1965. Photoperiodism and Seasonal Development of Insects. First English Edn. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh and London.

Gotoh, T. and T. Shinkaji 1981. Critical photoperiod and geographical variation of diapause induction in the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), in Japan. Japanes. J. Appi. Entomol. Zool. 25: 113-118.

Koveos, D.S. 1995. Geographic variation in photoperiodic induction and termination of diapause in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. PhD Thesis. University of Amsterdam.

Koveos D.S., A. Kroon and A. Veerman 1993a. The same photoperiodic clock controls induction and maintenance of diapause in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. J. Biol. Rhythms 8: 265-282.

Koveos D.S.. A. Kroon and A. Veerman 1993b. Geographic variation of diapause intensity in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Physiol. Entomol. 18: 50-56.

Koveos D.S. and A. Veerman 1994. Accumulation of photoperiodic information during diapause development in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. J. Insect Physiol. 40:701-707.

Krysan J.L. and T.F. Branson 1977. Inheritance of diapause intensity in Diabrotica virgifera. Journal of Heredity 68:425-417.

Lankinen. P. and J. Lummc 1984. Genetic analysis of geographical variation in photoperiodic diapause and pupal eclosion rhythm in Drosophila lateralis. In: R. νPorter and G.M. Collins (Eds): Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect and Molluscan Hormones: 97-114. Ciba Foundation Symposium 104. Pitman, London.

Masaki. S. 1961. Geographic variation of diapause in insects. Bull. Fac. Agric. Hirosaki Univ. 7: 66-98.

Masaki, S. 1984. Unity and diversity in insect photoperiodism. In: R. Porter and G.M. Collins (Eds): Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect and Molluscan Hormones: 101-112. Ciba Foundation Synposium 104. Pitman. London.

Nechols. J.R.. M.J. Tauber and CA. Tauber 1987. Geographical variability in ecophysiological traits controlling dormancy in Chrysopa oculata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). J. Insect Physiol. 33: 627-633.

Parr. W.J. and N.W. Hussey 1966. Diapause in the glasshouse red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch): a synthesis of present knowledge. Horticultural Research 6: 1-21.

Sauer, K.P.. H. Spieth and C Grüner 1986. Adaptive significance of genetic variability of photoperiodism in Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. In: F. Taylor & R. Karban (Eds): The Evolution of Insect Life Cycles: 153-172.

Springer-Verlag, New York-Berlin. Saunders, D.S. 1982. Insect Clocks. Second edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sims, S.R. 1982. Larval diapause in the eastern tree-hole mosquito, Aedes lriserialus. Latitudinal variation in induction and intensity. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 75: 195-200.

Takafuji, A. 1994. Variation in diapause characteristics and its consequences on population phenomena in the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In: H.V. Danks (Ed.): Insect Life-Cycle Polymorphism: Theory. Evolution and Ecological Consequences for Seasonality and Diapause Control: 113-132. Kluwer Academic

Publishers. Dordrecht-Boston-London.

Tauber. M.J.. CA. Tauber and S. Masaki 1986. Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Vaz Nunes M., D.S. Koveos and A. Veerman 1990. Geographical variation in photoperiodic induction of diapause in the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae): a

causal relation between critical nightlength and circadian period? J. Biol. Rhythms 5: 47-57.

Veerman, A. 1977. Photoperiodic termination of diapause in spider mites. Nature 266: 526-527.

Veerman, A. 1985. Diapause. In: W. Helle and M.W. Sabelis (Eds): Spider Mites: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests Vol. 1A: 279- 316. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Veerman, A. 1994. Photoperiodic and thermoperiodic control of diapause in plant-inhabiting mites: a review. Neth. J. Zool. 44: 139-155.

Veerman, A. and M. Vaz Nunes 1987. Analysis of the operation of the photoperiodic counter provides evidence for hourglass time measurement in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. J. Comp. Physiol. 160: 421- 430.

Veerman A. and D.S. Koveos 1989. Separation of photoperiodic and circadian effects on the termination of diapause in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

Experientia 45: 1143-1146.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 S. Koveos, A. Veerman