Published: Ιαν 1, 2010
Rock slope stability rock wedges Panagia coastal Byzantine wall Kavala
C. Loupasakis
N. Spanou
D. Kanaris
D. Exioglou
A. Georgakopoulos
The coastal Byzantine wall of Kavala is located at the Panagia peninsula and it is founded on the Simvolou granite. The granite rock mass appears to be fractured by joint sets with very high persistence (>20m) and very wide spacing (60cm – 2m), forming large rock blocks. Further more, the Panagia peninsula is intersected by numerous parallel normal faults, forming extended zones of intensively fractured rock mass. Along the coastline the granite appear to be eroded by the sea waves, forming small gulfs around the faults. The Byzantine wall is founded along the edge of the fractured slopes forming the coast line of the peninsula, arising issues about the safety of the historical construction. The joint sets form numerous rock wedges with unfavourable orientation, many sections of the slopes are undercut by the wave erosion and in the majority of the fault zones the rock mass presents intensive fragmentation. The above described condition of the rock mass was recorded in detail along the entire coast line and all unstable sections were located. A full set of support measures was proposed for all unfavourable sections aiming to the improvement of the geotechnical behaviour of the rock mass, constituting the foundation formation of the Byzantine wall.
Article Details
  • Section
  • Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering
Download data is not yet available.
Donnelly, L. J., Culshaw, M. G., Hobbs, P. R. N., Flint, R. C., Jackson, P. D. , 2005. Engineering geological
and geophysical investigations of a slope failure at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland. Bulletin of Engineering
Geology and the Environment, 64: 119–137.
Ghosh, D. K., 1990. Geological evaluation of foundations of ancient monuments and stability of rockcut
caves in central India. Environmental Geology, 16:15–22 .
Goodman, R.E., Bray, J.W., 1976. Toppling of rock slopes. In Proc. Specialty Conference on Rock Engineering
for Foundations and Slopes, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Vol. 2, pp. 201- 234.
Greif, V., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., 2006. Failure mechanism in an extremely slow rock slide at Bitchu-Matsuyama
castle site (Japan). Landslides, 3: 22–38.
I.G.M.E., 1973. Geological map of Greece, Kavala Sheet (scale 1:50.000), Athens, I.G.M.E. Publications.
Kamh, G. M. E., 2005. The impact of landslides and salt weathering on Roman structures at high latitudes
– Conway Castle, Great Britain: a case study. Environmental Geology, 48: 238–254.
Kolaiti, E. and Koumantakis, J., 1991. Engineering – Geological study of St. George castle of Cephalonia
(Ionian Islands, Greece). Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, No 43, Paris.
Koukis, G., Sabatakakis, N., 2007. Geology of engineering constructions. Papasotiriou Publications,
Athens, pp. 575.
Loupasakis, C., Georgakopoulos A., 2009. Geotechnical problems occurred at the costal wall of Kavala,
at the Lighthouse location, and the proposed protection measures. Proceedings of the 2nd Pan-Hellenic
conference of the Society for research and promotion of scientific reconstruction of monuments,
pp. 189 – 191.
Loupasakis C., Spanou N., Kanaris D., Exioglou D., 2009. Geotechnical investigation of the stabi-lity of rock
slopes located at the Kavala municipality. Unpublished report, IGME, Athens pp. 111.
Topal, T., Akin, M, Ozden, U. A., 2007. Assessment of rockfall hazard around Afyon Castle, Turkey. Environmental
Geology, 53:191–200.
Varnes, D.J., 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In Special Report 176: Landslides: Analysis and
Condrol, Eds.: Schuster R.L., Krizek R.J., TRB, Natioal Research Concil, Washington D.C., pp. 12-33.
Vlcko, J., 2004. Extremely slow slope movements influencing the stability of Spis Castle, UNESCO site.
Landslides, 1:67–71.
Most read articles by the same author(s)