| More


Views: 130 Downloads: 92
C. Papanicolaou, G. Triantafyllou, Ν. Pasadakis, Α,Ε. Foscolos
C. Papanicolaou, G. Triantafyllou, Ν. Pasadakis, Α,Ε. Foscolos


The results show that surface area of activated coal samples increased substantially and in some more than the commercial one. The increase in surface area was higher the higher the carbon content and the lower the ash content. The adsorption capacity of phenols and the decrease of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) in olive oil mil wastewater disposals were measured in selected samples as well as the decrease of COD and the adsorption of nitrogen and phosphorus from a solution which simulates city waste disposals were measured in 14 selected Greek lignites and 1 commercially available activated lignite sample (HOK). The maximum recorded adsorption of phenol was 30.6 mg/g of activated lignite while the commercial one (HOK) adsorbed 16 mg/g of activated lignite. The COD reduction was 1262 mg of COD/g of activated lignite while in the commercial one the reduction was 439 mg of COD/g of activated lignite. The maximum adsorption of N and P from the simulated city waste liquid was 6.41 mg/g of activated lignite and 2.52 mg/g of activated lignite, respectively. while the commercial one (HOK) adsorbed 2.84 mg/g and 2.42 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the COD reduction was 50.28 mg/g of activatedlignite and 34.92 mg/g for the commercially one (HOK). The results show that Greek activated lignites can be used successfully for cleaning industrial and city wastes. These findings open the door for the economic exploitation of small to medium size lignite deposits in Greece, which are widespread in Greece.


Activated lignite; adsorption; olive oil mill wastes; city waste liquids;

Full Text:



Aivazides, A. 2000. Technologia Diachirissis Ygron Apovliton, Panepistimiako Sygramma Dimokritio

Panepistimio Thrakis, Xanthi p. 56 ( Translation in Greek of the “Handbuch zur Schott-Anaerob-

Testeinheit“, 1987. Shott Glaswerke Mainz, Geschaftsbereich Chemie, Apparate-u. Anlagebau, Bioprozesstechnik,


Al-Malah, K., M.O.J. Azzam and N.I. Abu-Lail 2000. Olive mills effluent (OME) Waste water post-treatment

using activated clay. Separation and Purification Technology, 20, pp. 225-234.

Allen, S. J., Whitten, L. J., Murray, M., Duggan, O. 1997. The adsorption of pollutants by peat, lignite

and activated chars. Jour. of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 68, pp. 442-452.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 1978.Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 26.

Proximate analysis of coal and coke.D3172-3173, ultimate analysis of coal and coke, D 3174-3176.

ASTM Philadelphia, PA : 380, 390-391.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D3174,1989. Standard method of ash in the analysis

sample of coal and coke from coal. 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 26, Gaseous

Fuels: Coal and Coke. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 291–294.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D3302, 1989. Standard method of total moisture in

coal. 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 26, Gaseous Fuels:Coal and Coke. ASTM, Philadelphia,

PA, pp. 326– 332.

Atanassova, D., P. Kefalas and E. Psillaki (2005). Measuring the antioxidant activity of olive oil mill

wastewater using chemiluminescence. Environ. International, 31,2, pp. 275-280.

Dabrowski, A., Podkoscielny, P., Hubicki,Z., Barczak, M. 2005. Adsorption of phenolic compounds by

activated carbon: A Critical Review. Chemosphere, 58, pp. 1049-1070.

D’ Annnibale, A., Casa R., Pieruccetti, F., Ricci, M., Marabotini, R. 2004. Lentula edodes removes phenols

from olive mill wastewater ; impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grminability.

Chemosphere 54: 887-894.

Engelhard, J., Lenz, U.1997. Lignite coke in water and waste gas clean-up Proceedings of the 11th International

Conference on Coal Research, Calgary, Alberta, Canada September 9-12, 1997, pp. 355-368.

Folin, O. and V. Ciocaltaeu (1927) ‘On tyrosine and tryptophan determination in protein. J. of Biology and

Chemistry, 73, pp. 627-50.

Foscolos, A.E., Barefoot, R.R., 1970. A rapid determination of total organic and Inorganic and inorganic

carbon in shales and carbonates—A rapid determination of total sulphur in rocks and minerals. Geol.

Surv. Can. pp. 70–11.

Fraser, K. M.1972. Sorptive mode of activated lignite char. Ph. D. Thesis Libr. Univ. of Calgary, 91 p.

Galanakis, C., Dimou, D., Pasadakis, .N., Papanicοlaou, C., Gekas, V. 2006. Adsorption of olive mill

wastewater on raw and activated Greek lignites. Protection and Restoration of the Environment VIII,

Chania 2006: http://www.ath.aegean.gr/srcosmos/generic_pinakas.aspx?pinakas= publications&author_


Hamdi, M., Ellouz, R. 1993. Treatment of detoxified olive mill wastewaters by anaerobic filter and aerobic

fluidized bed process. Envirn. Technol. 14 (2) : 183-188.

International Committee for Coal Petrology (ICCP), 1963. International Handbook of Coal Petrography,

(5) XLIII, No 5 – 2307

nd edition. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

International Committee for Coal Petrology (ICCP), 1971. International Handbook of Coal Petrography,

st supplement to 2nd edition. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

International Committee for Coal Petrology (ICCP), 1993. International Handbook of coal petrography,

rd supplement to 2nd edition. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP), 2001. The new inertinite classification

(ICCP System 1994). Fuel 80, 459-471.

Karacan, F., Ozden, U., Karacan, S. 2006. Optimization of manufacturing conditions for activated carbon

from Turkish lignites by chemical activation using response surface methodology. Applied Thermal

Engineering, 27 (7) SPEC. ISS., May 2006 pp. 1212-1218.

Khan, K.A., Suidan, M.T., Cross, W.H. 1981. Anaerobic activated carbon filter for the treatment of phenol-

bearing wastewater. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed.: Vol/Issue: 53:10, pp. 1519-1532.

Klose, E., Heschel, W. 1987. Zur eignung von braunkohlenkoksen fuer die aktivkohleherstellung. Chemische

Technik (Leipzig) 39 (2), pp.70-74.

Mekki, A., Dhouib, A., Sayadi,S., 2007. Polyphenols dynamics and phytotoxicity in a soil amended by

olive mill wastewaters. J. Environ. Manag. 84: 134-140.

Niaounakis, M., Halvadakis,C.,P. 2006.Olive Processing Waste Management: Literature Review and

Patent Survey, 2nd Edition, Series 5, Elsevier Publication 498 p. ISBN-10 0-08-044851-8.

Navarro, M.V., Murillo, R., Lopez, J.M., Garcia, T., Callen, M.S., Mastral, A.M.2006. Modeling of activated

carbon production from lignite. Energy and Fuels, 20 (6) pp. 2627-2631.

Olson, E.S., Stepan, D.J. 2000. Subtask 1.5-Activated carbon from lignite for water treatment. U S. Department

of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Technical Report, 20 p., Cooperative

Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40320.

Oreopoulou, V., Russ, W. {eds} 2007. Utilization of by-products and treatment of waste in the food industry.

(Integrating Safety and Environmental Knowledgw into Food Studies Towards Sustainable Development.

Springer. Science+ Business Media LLC. 316 p. ISBN-10 0-387-33511-0, Library of

Congress Control Number 2006928132.

Papanicolaou, C., 2001. Atlantas ton ellinikon gaianthrakon. Anthrakopetrografikes Parametri. Piotita-Viodiktes.

Atlas of Greek Coals, Libr. Inst. of Geol. and Miner. Explor., Athens, Greece, (in Greek), 426 p.

Paredes, M.J., Monteoliva-Sanochez M., Moreno E., Perez J., Ramos-Cormenzana A. and Martinez J.

(1986). Effect of waste waters from olive oil extraction plants on the bacterial population of soil,

Chemosphere 15: 659–664.

Roig, A., Cayuela, M.L., Sanchez-Monedero, M.A., 2006. An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorization

methods. J. Waste Manag. 26: 960-969.

Stepan, D.J., Moe,T.A., Hetland, M.D., Laumb, M.L. 2001. JV –Task 15- Powdered activatedcarbon from

North Dakota lignite: An option for disinfection by-product control in water treatment plants. U S.Department

of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Technical Report, 41 p. Cooperative

Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40321.

Sykorova, I., Pickel, W., Christanis,K., Wolf, m., Taylor, G.H., Flores, D. 2005. Classification of huminite.-

ICCP System 1994. Intern. J. of Coal geol. 62 ( 1-2 SPEC.ISS.), PP. 85-106.

Zhang, S., Yan, Y., Yongjie, J. Y., Li, T., Ren, Z., 2005. Upgrading of liquid fuel from the pyrolysis of biomass.

Bioresour. Technol. 96, 545–550.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 C. Papanicolaou, G. Triantafyllou, Ν. Pasadakis, Α,Ε. Foscolos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.