Published: Jan 1, 2010
sanitary landfill clay minerals groundwater heavy metals stream sediments
E. Koutsopoulou
P. Tsolis-Katagas
D. Papoulis

Sanitary landfill facilities are essential to modern societies as repositories for municipal solid wastes. However, they always entrain a certain risk of environmental impact. For this reason monitoring is essential to their operation. In the present work, the environmental impact of such a landfill is studied. Soil samples were collected in and around the landfill and their mineralogy was studied. Top layers of stream sediments were collected to examine possible dispersion of pollutants in the environment. Chemical analyses showed enrichment in As, Cu, Zn, and Pb in the stream sediments compared to uncontaminated samples. The presence of anions such as chloride, sulphate and phosphate adsorbed on clay minerals suggest the interaction of stream sediments with run-off water from the landfill. The groundwater near the landfill site was characterised as not potable and not suitable for irrigation purposes, because some parameters such as NO3 - and Cl- were close or exceeded the permissible limits given by EE, EPA and WHO.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Petrology and Mineralogy
Download data is not yet available.
Brooker, MP., and Johnson, PC., 1984. Behaviour of phosphate, nitrate, chloride and hardness in 12 Welsh
rivers, Water Research, 18(9), 1155-1164.
Cavallaro, N., 1982. Sorption and fixation of Cu and Zn, and phosphate by soil clays as influenced by the
oxide fraction. PhD thesis. Cornell Univ. (Diss. Absr. 82-10799).
California Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. available at: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/ water.html
Chalermyanont, T., Arrykul S., and Charoenthaisong N., 2009. Potential use of lateritic and marine clay
soils as landfill liners to retain heavy metals, Waste Management, 29, 117–127.
Churchman, G.J., Gates, W.P., Theng, B.K.G., and Yuan, 2006. Clays and Clay Minerals for Pollution
Control. In: Developments in Clay Science Vol.1., Handbook of Clay Science, Bergaya, F., Theng,
B.K.G. and Lagaly, G. (Eds). 625-676pp.
Department of National Health and Welfare (Canada), 1978. Guidelines for Canadian drinking water
quality. Supporting documentation. Ottawa,
Doula, M.K., and Ioannou, A., 2003. The effect of electrolyte anion on Cu adsorption–desorption b y
clinoptilolite, Microporous Mesoporous Materials, 58, 115–130.
Doutsos, Th., Kontopoulos, N., and Ferentinos, G., 1985. Das westliche Ende des Korinth-Grabens. (The
western end of the Corinth graben.), Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie – Abhandlungen,
, 11, 652-666.
Doutsos, Th., Kontopoulos, N., and Poulimenos, G., 1988. The Corinth -Patras rift as the initial stage of
continental fragmentation behind an active island arc (Greece), Basin Research, 1, 177-190.
Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).: 1990, Seminar Publication: Assessment, Management and
Communication of Drinking Water Contamination. Washington, USA.
European Council Directive 80/778/EEC concerning Drinking Water Quality of 15/7/1980. http://ec.europa.
(5) XLIII, No 5 – 2643
European Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. http://eur-lex.europa.
Fatta, D., Papadopoulos A., and Loizidou, M., 1999. A study on the landfill leachate and its impact on the
groundwater quality of the greater area. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 21, 175–190.
Gibbs, R.J., 1970. Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry, Science, 170, 1088-1090.
Gibbs, R.J., 1973. Mechanisms of trace metal transport in rivers, Science, 180, 71-73.
Gonçalves, M.A., Nogueira, J.M.F, Figueiras,J., Putnis, C.V., and Almeida, C., 2004. Base-metals and organic
content in stream sediments in the vicinity of a landfill, Applied Geochemistry, 19, 137-151.
Harding, S.C., and Brown H.S., 1978 Distribution of selected trace elements in sediments of
Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina, Environmental Geology, 1(2), 181-191
Hermanns Stengele, R., and Plötze, M., 2000. Suitability of minerals for controlled landfill and containment,
EMU Notes in mineralogy, 2(8), 291-331.
Kalbe,U., Müller, W.W., Berger, W., and Eckardt, J., 2002. Transport of organic contaminants within
composite liner systems, Applied Clay Science, 21, 67-76.
KORONIS SA., ENVITEC A.E., (1996). ‘Sanitary Landfill Of the Municipality Of Patras’ Booklet for
the progress of works in the Landfill of Patras.
Kjeldsen, P., Bjerg, P., Rugge, K., Pedersen, J. K., Skov, B., Foverskov, A.,Wurtz, S., Christensen, T. H.,
Assessing the variability in leachate migration from an old municipal landfill, in: R. Cossu, H.
T. Christensen and R. Stegmann (eds) Proceedings Sardinia 93, Fourth International Landfill Symposium.
Sardinia, Italy, 1519–1531pp.
Mantei, E.J., and Coonrod D.D., (1989), Heavy metal content in the stream sediments adjacent to a sanitary
landfill, Environmental Geology and Water Science, 13(1), 51-58.
Mantei, E.J., and Foster M.V., 1991. Heavy Metals in Stream Sediments: Effects of Human Activities, Environmental
Geology and Water Science, 18, 2, 95-104
McBride, M.B., 1985. Sorption of Copper(II) on Aluminum Hydroxide as affected by phosphate, Soil
Science Society of America Journal, 49, 843-846.
McLean, J. E., and Bledsoe B.E., 1992. Behavior of Metals in Soils. In (eds.): Boulding J.R., EPA Environmental
Assessment Sourcebook. 19-56 pp.
Morales, E.C., 1987. Chemical quality of deep well waters in Cavite, Philippines, Water quality bulletin,
(1):43 45.
Moore, D.M., and Reynolds, R.C.Jr., 1989. X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay
Minerals. Oxford University Press. New York, 198-269pp.
National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2002. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/
Phelan, D.J., 1987. Water levels, chloride concentrations, and pumpage in the coastal aquifers of Delaware
and Maryland. US Geological Survey, 1987 (USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 87 4229;
Dialog Abstract No. 602039).
Ramamoorthy, S., and Rust, B.R., 1978. Heavy metal exchange processes in sediment water systems,
Environmental Geology, 2(3):165-172
Rule, J., 1986. Assessment of trace element geochemistry of Hampton Roads Harbor and Lower Chesapeake
Bay area sediments, Environmental Geology, 8(4):209-219
Sinex, S.A., and Helz, G.R., 1981. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments,
Environmental Geology, 3, 315 323
Stief, K., 1986. Das Multibarrierenkonzept als Grundlage von Planung, Bau, Betrieb und Nachsorge von
Deponien, Müll und Abfall, 18(1), 15-20.
XLIII, No 5 – 2644
Technical Instructions Hazardous Wastes (TA Abfall), (1991). Zweite Algemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift
zum Abfallgesetz, Teil 1: Technische Anleitung zur Lagerung, chemisch/physikalischen und biologischen
Behandlung, Verbrennung und Ablagerung von besonders überwachungsbedürftigen Abfällen
vom 12.03.1991. Gemeinsames Ministerialblatt, 8, 139.
Wang, P.G., Ji G.L., and Yu, T.R., 1987. Adsorption of chloride and nitrate by variable charge soils in relation
to electric charge of the soil, Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenernahrung Und Bodenkunde, 150: 17–23.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1978 (EURO Reports and Studies 2). Sodium, chlorides, and conductivity
in drinking water: a report on a WHO working group. Copenhagen,
WHO, World Health Organization, 1991. Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,
Report of the Second Review Group Meeting on Inorganics, Brussels, Belgium, Geneva,
WHO/PEP/91:32, 12 pp.
WHO, World Health Organization, 2003. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Health criteria
and other supporting information, WHO/SDE/WSH/03. 04/03, Geneva.
Undabeytia, T., Nir, S., Rytwo, G., Serban, C., Morillo, E., Maqueda, C., 2002. Modeling Adsorption-
Desorption Processes of Cu on Edge and Palnar Sites of montmorillonite, Environmental Science &
Technology, 36, 2677-2683.
Yanful, E.K., Quigley, R.M., and Nesbitt, H.W., 1988. Heavy metal migration at a landfill site, Sarnia, Ontario,
Canada—2: Metal partitioning and geotechnical implications, Applied Geochemistry, v. 3, p.
Zelilidis, A., Koukouvelas, I., and Doutsos, Th., 1998. Neogene paleostress changes behind the forearc
fold belt in the Patraikos Gulf area, Western Greece, Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie
– Abhandlungen, 1998, 311-325.
Most read articles by the same author(s)