| More

Applied geochemistry in the twenty-first century: mineral exploration and environmental surveys

Views: 435 Downloads: 374
A. DEMETRIADES
A. DEMETRIADES

Abstract


Applied (exploration and environmental) geochemistry in the twentieth century is briefly reviewed, and its future developments in the twenty-first century are envisaged in the light of advances in analytical instruments (laboratory and field) and computer technology. It is concluded that applied geochemical methods must be used by well-trained applied geochemists, and the potential for future developments is limited only by their ingenuity.


Keywords


Applied geochemistry; exploration geochemistry; environmental geochemistry; mineral exploration; analytical methods;

Full Text:

PDF

References


ANGINO, E.E. AND BILLINGS, G.K., 1972. Atomic absorption spectrometry in geology. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 191 pp.

APPLETON, J.D., FUGE, R. AND MCCALL, G.J.H. (Editors), 1996. Environmental geochemistry and health with special reference to developing countries. The Geological Society, London, 264 pp.

BEUS, A.A. AND GRIGORIAN, S.V., 1977. Geochemical exploration methods for mineral deposits. Applied Publishing Ltd., Wilmette, Illinois, 287 pp.

B0LVIKEN, B., BOGEN, J., DEMETRIADES, Α., DE VOS, W., EBBING, J., HINDEL, R., LANGEDAL, M., LOCUTURA, J., O'CONNOR, P., OTTESEN, R.T., PULKKINEN, E., SALMINEN, R., SCHERMANN, Ο., SWENNEN, R., VAN DER SLUYS, J. AND VOLDEN, T., 1996. Regional geochemical mapping of Western Europe towards the year 2000. J. Geochem. Explor., 56: 141-166.

BOYLE, R.W., 1967. Geochemical prospecting - retrospect and prospect. Can. Inst. Min. Metall. Bull., 60 (657): 44-49.

BOYLE, R.W. AND GARRETT, R.G., 1970. Geochemical prospecting - a review of its status and future. Earth- Science Reviews, 6: 51-75.

BRADSHAW, P.M.D., CLEWS, D.R. AND WALKER, J.L., 1972. Exploration geochemistry. Barringer Research Ltd., Rexdale, Ontario.

BUTT, C.R.M. AND ZEEGERS, H. (Editors), 1992. Regolith exploration geochemistry in tropical and subtropical terrains. Vol. 4: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., 607 pp.

CHAPPELL, W.R., ABERNATHY, CO. AND CALDERON, R.L. (Editors), 1999. Arsenic exposure and health effects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 416 pp.

DARNLEY, A.G., 1990. International geochemical mapping: a new global project. In: A.G. Darnley and R.G. Garrett (Editors), International Geochemical Mapping - IGCP Project 259. Special Issue, J. Geochem. Explor., 39: 1-13.

DARNLEY, A.G., 1995. International geochemical mapping - a review. J. Geochem. Explor., 55: 5-10.

DARNLEY, A.G., BJÖRKLUND, Α., B0LVIKEN, Β., GUSTAVSON, Ν., KOVAL, P.V., PLANT, J.A., STEENFELT, Α., TAUCHID, M., XUEJING, X., GARRETT, R.G. AND HALL, G.E.M., 1995. A global geochemical database for environmental and resource management. UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 122 pp.

DAVIS, J.C., 1973. Statistics and data analysis in geology. J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y, 550 pp.

DEMETRIADES, Α., 1998. Global geochemical baselines: A fundamental international project for environmental management. Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece, XXXII(l): 321-329.

DEMETRIADES, Α., STAVRAKIS, P. AND VERGOU-VICHOU, K., 1997. Exploration geochemistry in environmental impact assessment: Examples from Greece. In: P.G. Marinos, G.C. Koukis, G.C. Tsiambaos and G.C. Stournaras (Editors), Engineering Geology and the Environment. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2: 1757-1762.

FAIRBRIDGE, R.W., 1972. The Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y, 1321 pp.

FERGUSSON, J.E., 1990. The heavy elements: Chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 614 pp.

FLETCHER, W.K. (Editor), 1981. Analytical methods in geochemical prospecting. Vol. 1: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 255 pp.

FLETCHER, W.K., HOFFMAN, S.J., MEHRTENS, M.B., SINCLAIR, A.J. AND THOMSON, I., 1986. Exploration geochemistry: Design and interpretation of soil surveys. Society of Economic Geologists, 180 pp.

GINZBURG, I.I., 1960. Principles of geochemical prospecting. Pergamon Press, London, 298 pp.

GOLDSCHMIDT, V.M., 1970. Geochemistry. Oxford University Press, 730 pp.

GOVETT, G.J.S., 1986. Geochemistry: Its achievements and potential in mineral exploration. In: I. Thornton and R.J. Howarth (Editors), Applied Geochemistry in the 1980s. Graham & Trotman Ltd., London: 3-38.

GOVETT, G.J.S., 1983. Rock geochemistry in mineral exploration. Vol. 3: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 461 pp.

GREEN, P.M., KEYNON, J.R. AND Β RE WARD, N., 1997. Discovering geology: The Lake District. NERC, British Geological Survey, Key worth, Nottingham, CD-rom.

GROSSMAN, J.N., 1998. National geochemical atlas: The geochemical landscape of the conterminous United States derived from stream sediment and other solid sample media analysed by the national uranium evaluation (NURE) program. U.S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 98-622.

HALE, M. (Editor), 2000. Geochemical remote sensing of the sub-surface. Vol. 7: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 572 pp.

HALE, M. AND PLANT, J.A. (Editors), 1994. Drainage geochemistry. Vol. 6: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 766 pp.

HAWKES, H.E., 1957. Principles of geochemical prospecting. U.S.G.S. Bull. 1000-F: 225-355.

HAWKES, H.E., 1976. The early days of exploration geochemistry. J. Geochem. Explor., 6: 1-11.

HAWKES, H.E. AND WEBB, J.S., 1962. Geochemistry in mineral exploration. Harper & Row, Publishers, N.Y, 415 pp.

HEMPHILL, D.H. AND COTHERN, CR. (Editors), 1989. Trace substances in environmental health. University of Missouri, 386 pp.

HOWARTH, R.J. (Editor), 1983. Statistics and data analysis in geochemical prospecting. Vol. 2: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 437 pp.

HUANG, C.I., 1991. Environmental monitor. Explore, The Association of Exploration Geochemists Newsletter, No. 70: 17.

JOYCE, A.S., 1976. Exploration geochemistry. Techsearch Inc. & The Australian Mineral Foundation, 219 pp.

KAURANNE, L.K., SALMINEN, R. AND ERIKSSON, K. (Editors), 1992. Regolith exploration geochemistry in arctic and temperate terrains. Vol. 5: Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, G.J.S. Govett (Editor). Elsevier Scientific Pubi. Co., Amsterdam, 443 pp.

LEPELTIER, C, 1969. A simplified statistical treatment of geochemical data by graphical representation. Econ. GeoL, 64: 538-550.

LERNER, D.N. AND WALTON, N.R.G. (Editors), 1998. Contaminated land and groundwater: Future directions. The Geological Society, London, 248 pp.

LEVINSON, A.A., 1974. Introduction to exploration geochemistry. Applied Publishing Ltd., Wilmette, Illinois, 614 pp.

LEVINSON, A.A., 1980. Introduction to exploration geochemistry. Applied Publishing Ltd., Wilmette, Illinois, 924 pp.

LEVINSON, A.A., BRADSHAW, P.M.D. AND THOMSON, I., 1987. Practical problems in exploration geochemistry. Applied Publishing Ltd., Wilmette, Illinois, 269 pp.

MARSHALL, C.P. AND FAIRBRIDGE, R.W., 1999. Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 712 pp.

MASON, B., 1966. Principles of geochemistry. J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y., 329 pp.

NLFB, 2000. Digitaler atlas Hintergrundwerte. Niedersächsisches Landesampt für Bodenforschung, Hannover.

PLANT, J.A., KLAVER, G., LOCUTURA, J., SALMINEN, R., VRANA, K. AND FORDYCE, F.M., 1996. Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS) Geochemistry Task Group 1994-1996 Report. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Technical Report WP/95/15, 52 pp.

PLANT, J.A., KLAVER, G., LOCUTURA, J., SALMINEN, R., VRANA, K. AND FORDYCE, F.M., 1997. The Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS) Geochemistry Task Group inventory. J. Geochem. Explor., 59: 123-146.

RANKAMA, K. AND SAHAMA, TH.G., 1950. Geochemistry. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 912 pp.

RATTIGAN, J., 1970. The geochemical prospecting programme. In: L.J. Lawrence (Editor), Exploration and Mining Geology with particular reference to the Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Inst. Min. Metall., 2: 72-81.

ROSE, A.W., HAWKES, H.E. AND WEBB, J.S., 1979. Geochemistry in mineral exploration. Academic Press, London, 657 pp.

RUNNELLS, D.D., 1993. Application of exploration geochemistry tools to environmental purposes. Explore, The Association of Exploration Geochemists Newsletter, No. 78: 12-13.

SALMINEN, R., TARVAINEN, T, DEMETRIADES, Α., DURIS, M., FORDYCE, F.M., GREGORAUSKIENE, V, KAHELIN, H., KIVISILLA, J., KLAVER, G., KLEIN, P., LARSON, J.O., LIS, J., LOCUTURA, J., MARSINA, K., MJARTANOVA, Η., MOUVET, C, O'CONNOR, P., ODOR, L., OTTONELLO, G., PAUKOLA, T., PLANT, J.A., REIMANN, C, SCHERMANN, Ο., SIEWERS, U., STEENFELT, Α., VAN DER SLUYS, J. AND WILLIAMS, L., 1998. FOREGS geochemical mapping manual. Guide 47, Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, 42 pp.

SIEGEL, F.R., 1974. Applied geochemistry. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y, 353 pp.

SINCLAIR, A.J., 1974. Selection of threshold values in geochemical data using probability graphs. J. Geochem. Explor., 3: 129-149.

STANLEY, C.R., 1987. PROBLOT, An interactive computer program to fit mixtures of normal (or log normal) distributions with maximum likelihood optimisation procedures. Association of Exploration Geochemists, Nepean, Ontario.

STANTON, R.E., 1966. Rapid methods of trace analysis for geochemical applications. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London, 96 pp.

STANTON, R.E., 1976. Analytical methods for use in geochemical exploration. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London, 55 pp.

TENNANT, C.B. AND WHITE, M.L., 1959. Study of the distribution of some geochemical data. Econ. GeoL, 54: 1281-1290.

THORNTON, I. (Editor), 1983. Applied environmental geochemistry. Academic Press, London, 501 pp.

THORNTON, I. (Editor), 1988. Geochemistry and health. Science Reviews Ltd., Northwood, 272 pp.

THORNTON, I. AND CULBARD, E. (Editors), 1987. Lead in the home environment. Science Reviews Ltd., Northwood, 224 pp.

VERNADSKY, V.l., 1998. The Biosphere. Copernicus, N.Y., 192 pp.

WEBB, J.S., 1983. Foreword. In: I. Thornton (Editor), Applied environmental geochemistry. Academic Press, London: vii-viii.

WEBB, J.S., THORNTON, I., THOMPSON, M, HOWARTH, R.J. AND LOWENSTEIN, PL., 1978. The Wolfson geochemical atlas of England and Wales. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 70 pp.

WEDEPOHL, K.H. (Exec. Editor), 1969-1978. Handbook of Geochemistry. Vol. I, II-1, II-2, II-3, II-4, II-5. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 A. DEMETRIADES

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.