| More

Submerged antiquities on Paros and Naxos islands, Aegean Sea, Greece. New evidence for the mean sea level during the late Bronze Age and the Roman period

Views: 264 Downloads: 181
Niki Evelpidou (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7817-4471), Eleni Tziligkaki, Anna Karkani (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9956-3804)
Niki Evelpidou, Eleni Tziligkaki, Anna Karkani

Abstract


Sea level changes are the combined effect of eustatic, glacio-isostatic and tectonic factors. Oxygen isotope data and geophysical models are often used to assess the first two factors, while the third factor can be assessed by field data. In this context, detailed mapping of palaeo sea-level markers may be used to evaluate coastal tectonic movements and the relative sea level changes in a particular region. Although various sea level markers exist, e.g. geomorphological, biological, archaeological, their reliability varies depending on their relationship to sea level. Amongst geomorphological indicators, tidal notches stand out as they can indicate former sea-level positions, with up to a decimeter confidence, while their shape may also provide qualitative information on the rate of sea-level change and on tectonic movements. Biological markers may also provide useful information provided that their relationship to mean sea level is clearly defined. Last but not least, archaeological remains, emerged or submerged, may also be used to quantify relative sea level changes; however, their reliability varies depending on the functionality of the structure.

In this framework, the aim of this paper is the study of sea level changes in the Central Aegean Sea (Paros and Naxos islands) through the use of various sea level indicators. Submerged beachrocks and tidal notches bear witness to the extent and depth of ancient shores. The submerged antiquities of Paros include cemeteries of various time periods and harbour installations, while the Baccini antiquities in Naxos include quarries and coastal settlements. Archaeological data in Grotta and Aplomata (Naxos), give evidence of at least two seismic events, coinciding with the profiles of two submerged tidal notches found at a depth of –3 m and –2.5 m respectively. The tsunami that covered the northern part of the Hellenistic Agora of Naxos in the 2nd c. AD is additionally confirmed by a submerged tidal notch at a depth of –1.70 m and dated by shells of Cerastoderma.

 


Keywords


sea level changes; Cyclades; Aegean Sea; sea level indicators; Late Bronze Age; Roman Period

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alföldy, G., 1971. Zeitgeschichte und Krisenempfindung bei Herodian. Hermes, 99, 429-449.

Alföldy, G., 1976. The crisis of the 3rd c. AD (235 – 284 AD). History of the Greek Nation, Hellenism and Rome, 6, 584-614. Athens, Ekdotike Athenon SA (in Greek).

Antonioli, F., Anzidei, M., Lambeck, K., Auriemma, R., Gaddi, D., Furlani, S., Orru,P., Solinas, E., Gaspari, A., Karinja, S., Kovacic, V., Surace, L., 2007. Sea level change during Holocene from Sardinia and northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 2463-2486.

Auriemma, R., Solinas, E., 2009. Archaeological remains as sea level change markers: A review. Quaternary International, 206, 134-146.

Baccini Leotardi, P., 1989. Nuove testimonianze sul commercio dei marmi in età imperiale. Istituto Italiano per la storia antica, Roma.

Barber, R.L.N., Hadjianastasiou, O., 1989. Mikre Vigla: A Bronze Age Settlement on Naxos. The annual of the British School of Athens, 84, 63-162.

Berranger-Auserve, D., 2000. Paros II. Prosopographie générale et Étude historique du début de la période classique jusqu’à la fin de la période romaine. Collection ERGA, Clermont-Férrand Cedex.

Blackman, D.J., 1973. Evidence of sea level change in ancient harbours and coastal installations, in: Blackman, D.J. (Ed.), Marine Archaeology. Butterworths, London, 115-137 pp.

Chalepa-Bikake, A., 1983a. Trenches D3 and E3, in: Lambrinoudakis, V.K., Zapheiropoulou, Ph. (Eds.), Excavation of the Cathedral Square (Plateia Metropoleōs) on Naxos, 304-311. Prakt, 299-304 (in Greek).

Chalepa-Bikake, A., 1983b. Excavation Notebook 1983, Trench D3, 22-08-1983; 23-08-1983; 24-08-1983, pp. 55-76 (in Greek).

Cosmopoulos, M.B., 1998. Reconstructing Cycladic Prehistory: Naxos in the Early and Middle Late Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 17 (2), 127-148.

Dalongeville, R., Desruelles, S., Fouache, É., Hasenohr, C., Pavlopoulos, K., 2007. Hausse relative du niveau marin à Délos (Cyclades, Grèce): rythme et effets sur les paysages littoraux de la ville hellénistique. Méditerranée, 108, 17-28.

Dalongeville, R., Renault-Miskovsky, J., 1993. Paysages passés et actuels de l’île de Naxos, in: Dalongeville, R., Rougemont, G. (Eds.), Recherches dans les Cyclades, Résultats des travaux de la RCP 583. Collection de la Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen No 23, Lyon, 9-57 pp.

Desruelles, S., Fouache, E., Ciner, A., Dalongeville, R., Pavlopoulos, K., Kosun, E., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., 2009. Beachrocks and sea level changes since Middle Holocene: Comparison between the insular group of Mykonos–Delos–Rhenia (Cyclades, Greece) and the southern coast of Turkey. Global and Planetary Change, 66, 1-2, 19-33.

Evelpidou, N., 2001. Geomorphological and Environmental study of Naxos island using Remote Sensing and GIS. PhD thesis, University of Athens, Geology Department, GAIA 13, 226 p.

Evelpidou, N., Pavlopoulos, K., Vassilopoulos, A., Triantaphyllou, M., Vouvalidis, K., Syrides, G., 2012. Holocene palaeogeographical reconstruction of the western part of Naxos island (Greece). Quaternary International, 266, 81-93.

Evelpidou, Ν., Melini, D., Pirazzoli, P.A., Vassilopoulos, A., 2014. Evidence of repeated late Holocene rapid subsidence in the S-E Cyclades (Greece) deduced from submerged notches. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 103 (1), 381-395. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-013-0942-0.

Flemming, N.C. 1979. Archaeological indicators of sea level, in: NIVMER (Ed.), Les Indicateurs de niveaux marins. Oceanis, 5, 149-166.

Florido, E., Auriemma, R., Faivre, S., Radić Rossi, I., Antonioli, F., Furlani, S., Spada, G., 2011. Istrian and Dalmatian fishtanks as sea-level markers. Quaternary International, 232, 105-113.

Herodian’s History of the Empire from the time of Marcus Aurelius, (Greek text and facing English Translation by C.R. Whittaker), Books I-V, vol. 1. Loeb Classical Library 454, Harvard University Press 1969.

Inscriptiones Graecae insularum maris Aegaei praeter Delum. Fasciculus V, Inscriptiones Cycladum (edidit Fridericus Hiller de Gaertringen), Pars I. Inscriptiones Cycladum preater Tenum, Berolini 1903.

Jansen, B.J.H., 1973. Geological map of Greece, Island of Naxos, Scale 1:50.000. National Institute of Geological and Mineral Researches, Athens.

Karo, G., 1930. Archäologische Funde aus dem Jahre 1929 und der ersten Hälfte von 1930. Archäologischer Anzeiger, 45, 88-167.

Kelletat, D., 1979. Geomorphologische Studien an den Küsten Kretas. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Göttingen.

Knoblauch, P., 1972. Die Hafenanlagen der Stadt Ägina. ArchDelt, 27, 50-85.

Koenigs, W., 1978. Dorische Hallenanlagen auf Paros. Archäologischer Anzeiger, 93, 375-384.

Kontoleon, N.M., 1958. Excavations of Naxos. Prakt, 228-229 (in Greek).

Kontoleon, N.M., 1967. Excavation of Naxos. Prakt, 112-123 (in Greek).

Kontoleon, N.M., 1970. Excavation of Naxos. Prakt, 146-155 (in Greek).

Korres, M., 2010. The underground quarries of Paros, in: Schilardi, D., Katsonopoulou, D. (Eds.), Paria Lithos. Parian Quarries, Marble and Workshops of Sculpture, 61-82 pp. (in Greek with an English summary).

Kraounaki, I., Kourkoumelis, D., 2000. Prefecture of Cyclades. Paros, Paroikia. ArchDelt, 55, 1213-1215 (in Greek).

Laborel, J., Laborel-Deguen, F., 1994. Biological indicators of relative sea level variations and of co-seismic displacements in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Coastal Research, 10 (2), 395-415.

Lambrinoudakis, V.K., Zapheiropoulou, Ph., 1985. Excavation of Naxos. Cathedral Square (Plateia Metropoleōs). Prakt, 162-167 (in Greek).

Lambrinoudakis, V.K., 1985. Excavation of Naxos. Prakt, 144-161 (in Greek).

Lambrinoudakis, V.K., 1988. Excavation of Naxos. Prakt, 208-218 (in Greek).

Machaira, V., 1988. Pottery, in: Lambrinoudakis, V.K. (Ed.), Excavation of Naxos. Prakt, 214-218 (in Greek).

Magie, D., 1950. Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the end of the 3rd century after Christ, vol. II: Notes. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Murray, W.M., 1988. The Ancient Harbour Mole at Leukas, Greece, in: Raban, A. (Ed.), Archaeology of Coastal Changes, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium “Cities on the Sea –Past and Present. BAR International Series 404, Oxford, 101-118 pp.

Négris, Ph., 1904. Vestiges antiques submerges. Athenische Mitteilungen, 29, 340-363.

Orlandos, A.K., Travlos, I.N., 1986. Dictionary of ancient architectural terms (n. 94). Library of The Archaeological Society at Athens, Athens (in Greek).

Papanikolaou, D., 1980. Contribution to the Geology of Aegean Sea: The island of Paros. Annales Geologique de Pays Hellenique, 30 (1), 65-96.

Papathanassopoulos, G., Schilardi, D., 1981. An underwater survey of Paros, Greece: 1979: Preliminary report. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 10 (2), 133-144.

Pensabene, P., 1994. Le vie del marmo: i blocchi di cava di Roma e di Ostia, il fenomeno del marmo nella Roma antica. Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Soprintendenza archeologica di Ostia, Roma.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1979. Les viviers à poissons romains en Méditerranée, in: NIVMER (Ed.), Les Indicateurs de niveaux marins. Oceanis, 5, 191-201.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1986. The Early Byzantine Tectonic Paroxysm. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 62, 31-49.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1988. Sea-Level Changes and Crustal Movements in the Hellenic Arc (Greece). The Contribution of Archaeological and Historical Data, in: Raban, A. (Ed.), Archaeology of Coastal Changes, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium “Cities on the Sea –Past and Present. BAR International Series 404, Oxford, 157-184 pp.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1993. Global sea-level changes and their measurement. Global and Planetary Change, 8, 135–148.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1994. Tectonic shorelines, in: Carter, R.W.G., Woodroffe, C.D. (Eds.), Coastal Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 451–476 pp.

Pirazzoli, P.A., 1996. Sea-Level Changes. The Last 20000 Years. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, London.

Pliny Natural History Vol. X: Libri XXXVI-XXXVII (by D.E. Eichholz) with an English translation, The Loeb Classical Library 419, London / Cambridge, Massachusetts 1962.

Reimer, P.J., McCormac, F.G., 2002. Marine radiocarbon reservoir corrections for the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. Radiocarbon, 44, 159-166.

Rubensohn, O., 1901. Paros II. Topographie. Athenische Mitteilungen, 26, 157-222.

Rubensohn, O., 1949. s. Paros. Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung, 18 (4), 1781-1872.

Schilardi, D. 2010. Appendix IV: Quarries and Marble of Paros: the decade 2000-2010. in: Schilardi, D., Katsonopoulou, D. (Eds.), Paria Lithos. Parian Quarries, Marble and Workshops of Sculpture, 649-661 pp. (in Greek with an English summary)

Schilardi, D. U., Katsonopoulou, D., (Eds.) 2010. Paria Lithos. Parian Quarries, Marble and Workshops of Sculpture. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of Paros and the Cyclades, Paros 2-5 October 1997, Second edition, Athens.

Treuil, R., 1983. Prospection archéologique à Naxos en 1981, in: Les Cyclades. Matériaux pour une étude de géographie historique. Table ronde réunie à l’Université de Dijon, les 11, 12 et 13 mars 1982. CNRS, Paris, 59-66 pp.

Tziligkaki, E.K., 2014. The ancient quarries of Crete. PhD Thesis, University of Crete, Rethymno (in Greek).

Vitruve De l’Architecture, Livre II (par L. Callebat, P. Gros, C. Jacquemard), Paris 1999.

Vlachopoulos, A., 2006. The LH IIIC period in Naxos, Vol. A. Archaiognosia, 4, Athens (in Greek).

Winter, E., 1996. Staatliche Baupolitik und Baufürsorge in den römischen Provinzen des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien. Asia Minor Studien; Band 20, Bonn.

Zapheiropoulou, Ph., Lambrinoudakis, V.K., 1982. Excavation of the Cathedral Square (Plateia Metropoleōs) on Naxos. Prakt, 260-262 (in Greek).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Niki Evelpidou, Eleni Tziligkaki, Anna Karkani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.