Have We Found the New “Artillery”?

Δημοσιευμένα: Dec 29, 2021
George Moustakakis

In our day new conflicts erupt in the so called “hot zones” around the world. What can be clearly seen in those conflicts is the extensive use of certain strategies aimed at giving specific advantages to the adversaries. This phenomenon is due to certain factors of modern way of decision making and way of thinking in general. The current paper's purpose is to examine the reasons that constitute the utilization of such strategies almost a necessity and to analyze a number of them. To be more exact, four strategies are under examination, including their advantages, disadvantages and a number of instances where they have been utilized in the past. The aforementioned strategies are: 1. proxy warfare, 2. pre-emptive strikes, 3. deterrence and 4. strikes from a distance, with speed and precision. To conclude, an effort will be made to make a general assumption about the future of the aforementioned strategies and if their presence will be something of a formality in the near future or if it they will inevitably fade away in due time.

Λεπτομέρειες άρθρου
  • Ενότητα
  • Articles
Τα δεδομένα λήψης δεν είναι ακόμη διαθέσιμα.
Βιογραφικό Συγγραφέα
George Moustakakis, Department of International and European Studies, University of Piraeus, Greece.
Department of International and European Studies, University of Piraeus, Greece.
AMAP (1997). Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report. Arctic monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. Available at: https://www.amap.no/documents/doc/arctic-pollution-issues-a-state-of-the-arctic-environment-report/67 (Accessed: 26/10/2021).
Amatulli G. (2017). The role of China in the Arctic: challenges and opportunities for a sustainable development of the region. Jindal Global Law Review, 8(1), 103–110.
Assef, N. (2018). China's Polar Silk Road: Overview, Challenges & Opportunities. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3179218 (Accessed: 23/10/2021)
Biedermann, R. (2020). China’s impact on the European Union’s Arctic policy: critical junctures, crossovers, and geographic shifts. Asia Europe Journal, 1-21.
Blunden, M. (2012). Geopolitics and the Northern Sea Route. International Affairs, 88(1), 115-129.
Brady, A. (2019). China as a rising polar power: What it means for Canada. A Macdonald-Laurier Institute Publication.
Chater, A. (2016). Explaining Non-Arctic States in the Arctic Council. Strategic Analysis, 40(3), 173-184.
Eiiterjord TA (2019). China’s busy year in the Arctic. The Diplomat. Available at: https://thediplomat.com/2019/01/chinas-busy-year-in-the-arctic/ (Accessed: 29/10/2021).
European Commission (2021). Questions and answers on the EU's Arctic Strategy. European Commission. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_21_5164 (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
Havnes, H. (2020). The Polar Silk Road and the People’s Republic of China’s role in Arctic governance. Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, 4(1).
Heininen, L. (2020). Before Climate Change, ‘Nuclear Safety’ Was There—A Retrospective Study and Lessons Learned of Changing Security Premises in the Arctic. In: Heininen, L. & Pirot, H. (eds). Climate Change and Arctic Security-Searching for a Paradigm Shift. Palgrave Macmillan, 107-129. Available at : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20230-9 (Accessed 22/10/2021).
Heininen, L., Everett, K., Padrtova, B. & Reissell, A. (2020). Arctic Policies and Strategies-Analysis, Synthesis, and Trends. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria. Available at: 10.22022/AFI/11-2019.16175 (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
Isla H. Myers-Smith, Jeffrey T. Kerby, Sonja Wipf (2020) Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic. Nature Climate Change, 10, 106–117.
Koivurova, T., Kokko, K., Duyck, S., Sellheim, N., & Stepien, A. (2011). The present and future competence of the European Union in the Arctic. Polar Record, 48(4), 1 - 11.
Lanteigne, M. (2014). China’s Emerging Arctic Strategies: Economics and Institutions. University of Iceland Press. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/285164 (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
Lim, K. S. (2018). China's Arctic Policy and the Polar Silk Road Vision. In Heininen, L. & Exner-Pirot, H. (Eds.) Arctic Yearbook 2018, 420-432, Northern Research Forum. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3603710 (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
Lin, S., Sidaway, J., & Woon, C. (2019). Reordering China, Respacing the World: Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路) as an Emergent Geopolitical Culture. The Professional Geographer, 71(3), 507-522.
Lindsey, R., & Scott, M. (2020). Climate Change: Arctic Sea ice summer minimum. Climate.gov. Available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-arctic-sea-ice-summer-minimum (Accessed: 12/11/2021).
Miller, M., & Hildenbrand, A. (2019). Perspectives from the Arctic as a Strategic Space: Geopolitics of the Northern Flank. The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, 38. Available at: https://www.marshallcenter.org/en/publications/security-insights/perspectives-arctic-strategic-space-geopolitics-northern-flank-0 (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
NASA Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet (2021). Arctic Sea Ice Minimum. Climate.nasa.com. Available at: https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/arctic-sea-ice/ (Accessed: 22/10/2021).
Offerdal, K. (2011). The EU in the Arctic: In pursuit of legitimacy and influence. International Journal, 66(4), 861–877.
Østhagen, A. (2019). The New Geopolitics of the Arctic: Russia, China and the EU. Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies, 18(2), 259-259.
Oxford Analytica (2018). Polar Silk Road will reshape trade and geopolitics. Dailybrief.oxan.com. Available at: https://dailybrief.oxan.com/Analysis/DB238508/Polar-Silk-Road-will-reshape-trade-and-geopolitics (Accessed: 24/10/2021).
Pelaudeix, C. (2018). Along the Road China in the Arctic. European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 13/2018. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep21468 (Accessed: 22/10/ 2021).
Peng J.& Wegge N. (2015). China’s bilateral diplomacy in the Arctic. Polar Geography, 38(3), 233-249.
Phoenix, G., & Jerke, J. (2016). Arctic browning: extreme events and trends reversing arctic greening. Global Change Biology, 22, 2960-2962.
Stroeve, J., & Notz, D. (2015). Insights on past and future sea-ice evolution from combining observations and models. Global and Planetary Change, 135, 19-132.
Tillman, H., Yang, J., & Nielsson, E. (2018). The Polar Silk Road: China’s New Frontier of International Cooperation. China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 4(3), 345-362.