Βοηθήστε μας να κάνουμε καλύτερη την υπηρεσία eJournals. Αν έχετε χρησιμοποιήσει την υπηρεσία eJournals στο παρελθόν και έχετε κάποια εμπειρία ως προς τη χρήση της, παρακαλούμε αφιερώστε ένα λεπτό και συμπληρώστε το σύντομο ερωτηματολόγιο!

History and Virtual Topology: The Nineteenth-Century Press as Material Flow


Published: Aug 21, 2018
Keywords:
virtual topology becoming Gilles Deleuze new materialism digital humanities text reuse detection
Asko Nivala
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5416-9667
Hannu Salmi
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8607-6126
Jukka Sarjala
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7014-7970
Abstract

Drawing on a new materialist approach, this article discusses the concepts of the virtual and virtual topology, and their fruitfulness for historians' empirical work. It starts by following Gilles Deleuze's argument that the virtual, the transformative potential of the real, has to be distinguished from the possible, which is merely an imagined double of the given world. Embracing this premise, the article shows the potential of virtual topology to shed light on the transformation of a network in the past. It suggests that history is not only about actual and stable things, it is also a site of becomings. This idea is elaborated through an analysis that focuses on the changes in the nineteenth-century Finnish press. The virtual as a theoretical concept is combined with the methodological opportunities offered by recent developments in the digital humanities, in this case, text reuse detection.

Article Details
  • Section
  • ARTICLES
Downloads
Download data is not yet available.
Author Biographies
Asko Nivala, Department of Cultural History & Turku Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Turku
Asko Nivala is a postdoctoral researcher at the Turku Institute for Advanced Studies. His research focuses on the age of German Romanticism. In 2017, he published a monograph The Romantic Idea of the Golden Age in Friedrich Schlegel's Philosophy of History (Routledge Studies in Cultural History). The book discusses the themes of the Golden Age and the Kingdom of God in Friedrich Schlegel’s (1772–1829) early thought. In addition to that, Nivala has studied the spatiality of thought and concepts, about which he co-edited the book Travelling Notions of Culture in Early Nineteenth-Century Europe (Routledge 2016) together with Hannu Salmi and Jukka Sarjala.
Hannu Salmi, Department of Cultural History, University of Turku

Hannu Salmi is professor of cultural history and academy professor at the University of Turku in Finland. He has published widely, especially on nineteenth-century cultural history but also on the history of music, film and television and on the history of emotions and the senses. He is the founding member of the International Society for Cultural History and served as the first Chair of its Committee in 2008-2013. He has led several research projects, including Travelling Notions of Culture: Itineraries of Bildung and Civilisation in Early Nineteenth-Century Europe, funded by the Academy of Finland, 2012-2015, and Memory Boxes: Cultural Transfer in Europe 1500-2000, co-funded by the Academy of Finland and the DAAD in 2012-2013. Salmi is the author of, for example, Nineteenth-Century Europe: A Cultural History (Polity Press, 2008, translated into Polish in 2010) and Wagner and Wagnerism in Nineteenth-Century Sweden, Finland, and the Baltic Provinces: Reception, Enthusiasm, Cult (University of Rochester Press, 2005). He has contributed into such journals as History and Theory, Storia della Storiografia, Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, Film & History, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte and Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft. He was also awarded the Non-fiction Writer Prize 2013 in Finland.

Jukka Sarjala, Department of Cultural History, University of Turku

Jukka Sarjala is a senior researcher at the Department of Cultural History, University of Turku. His current interests are early Romanticism and Gothic, the intellectual and cultural history of the early nineteenth century.

References
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. London: Verso, 2006.
Bulwer-Lytton, Edward. “Diffusion of Newspaper Knowledge, &c.” Bulwer’s address at the opening of Lincoln News-room. The Odd Fellows’ Magazine, n.s. April 1839, 294.
Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge. Vol. 2, From the Encyclopédie to Wikipedia. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012.
Colebrook, Claire. “Introduction.” In Deleuze and History, edited by Jeffrey A. Bell and Claire Colebrook, 1–32. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.
Cordell, Ryan. “Reprinting, Circulation, and the Network Author in Antebellum Newspapers.” American Literary History 27/3 (2015): 417–45.
De Greene, Kenyon B. “Field-Theoretic Framework for the Interpretation of the Evolution, Instability, Structural Change, and Management of Complex Systems.” In Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications, edited by L. Douglas Kiel and Euel Elliott, 273–94. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
DeLanda, Manuel. A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York: Swerve, 1997.
DeLanda, Manuel. Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy. London: Continuum, 2002.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, 10th ed. Translated by Robert Hurley, Mark Seem and Helen R. Lane. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. What Is Philosophy? Translated by Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell. London: Verso, 2009.
Deleuze, Gilles. Bergsonism. Translated by Barbara Habberjam and Hugh Tomlinson. New York: Zone Books, 1991.
Deleuze, Gilles. Difference and Repetition. Translated by Paul Patton. London: Continuum, 2001.
Lampert, Jay. Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of History. London: Continuum, 2006.
Landgren, Lars. “Kieli ja aate – politisoituva sanomalehdistö 1860–1889.” In Suomen lehdistön historia. Vol. 1, Sanomalehdistön vaiheet vuoteen 1905, edited by Päiviö Tommila, 267–420. Kuopio: Kustannuskiila, 1988.
Lundy, Craig. History and Becoming: Deleuze’s Philosophy of Creativity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.
Lury, Celia, Luciana Parisi and Tiziana Terranova, eds. “Topologies of Culture.” Special issue. Theory, Culture & Society 29/4–5 (2012).
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto. Translated by Samuel Moore. London: Penguin, 2015.
Mazis, Glen A. Humans, Animals, Machines: Blurring Boundaries. New York: State University of New York Press, 2008.
McCulloh, Ian, Helen Armstrong, and Anthony Johnson. Social Network Analysis with Applications. Hoboken: Wiley, 2013.
McKim Malville, John. “Complexity and Self-organization in Pilgrimage Systems”. Paper presented at the Pilgrimage and Complexity conference, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi, 5–9 January 1999. http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/pilgrimage/papers/Malville-Pap/kimpap1.html. Accessed 3 May 2016.
Meillassoux, Quentin. After Finitude: An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency. Translated by Ray Brassier. London: Continuum, 2009.
Mirkin, Boris. Clustering: A Data Recovery Approach, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013.
Osterhammel, Jürgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century. Translated by Patrick Camiller. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
Pääkkönen, Tuula, Jukka Kervinen, Asko Nivala, Kimmo Kettunen and Eetu Mäkelä. “Exporting Finnish Digitized Historical Newspaper Contents for Offline Use.” D-Lib Magazine 22/7–8 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1045/july2016-paakkonen. Accessed 24 April 2018.
Salmi, Hannu. “Viral Virtuosity and the Itineraries of Celebrity Culture.” In Travelling Notions of Culture in Early Nineteenth-Century Europe, edited by Hannu Salmi, Asko Nivala and Jukka Sarjala, 135–53. New York: Routledge, 2016.
Sarjala, Jukka. Musiikkimaun normitus ja yleinen mielipide: Musiikkikritiikki Helsingin sanomalehdistössä 1860–1888. Turku: Turun Yliopisto, 1994.
Sauvagnargues, Anne. Deleuze and Art. Translated by Samantha Bankston. London: Bloomsbury Press, 2013.
Schauman, August. Från sex årtionden i Finland. Vol. 1, Upptecknade lefnadsminnen. Helsingfors: G. W. Edlund, 1892.
Shields, Rob. “Cultural Topology: The Seven Bridges of Königsburg, 1736.” Theory, Culture & Society 29/4–5 (2012): 43–57.
Shields, Rob. Spatial Questions: Cultural Topologies and Social Spatialisation. Los Angeles: Sage, 2013.
Smith, David A., Ryan Cordell and Abby Mullen. “Computational Methods for Uncovering Reprinted Texts in Antebellum Newspapers.” American Literary History 27/3 (2015): E1–E15.
The Newspaper and Periodical OCR Corpus of the National Library of Finland. 1771–1874. http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:lb-2015051201. Accessed 24 April 2018.
Vesanto, Aleksi, Asko Nivala, Heli Rantala, Tapio Salakoski, Hannu Salmi and Filip Ginter. “Applying BLAST to Text Reuse Detection in Finnish Newspapers and Journals, 1771–1910.” Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Processing Historical Language, edited by Gerlof Bouma and Yvonne Adesam, 54–58. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/133/010/ecp17133010.pdf.
Vesanto, Aleksi, Asko Nivala, Tapio Salakoski, Hannu Salmi and Filip Ginter. “A System for Identifying and Exploring Text Repetition in Large Historical Document Corpora.” Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, edited by Jörg Tiedemann, 330–33. Linköping: Linkoping University Electronic Press, 2017. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/131/049/ecp17131049.pdf.
Widder, Nathan. “John Duns Scotus.” In Deleuze’s Philosophical Lineage, edited by Graham Jones and Jon Roffe, 27–43. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.