Non-thermal microwave effects on chicken foetuses during organogenesis

Published: Dec 19, 2017
RF radiation effects organogenesis microwaves chicken foetuses.

The purpose of this work is το investigate possible effects of pulse-modulated (PW) and non-modulated (CW) low power density microwave radiation on chicken foetuses during organogenesis. A total of 496 fertilised chicken eggs were used in this study; 380 of diem as experimental material and 116 as controls. The experimental eggs were exposed to a non-thermal power density of 8.8 uW/cm2 (SAR= 1.16 mW/Kg) radiation at 9.152 GHz, from the 3rd to the 10th day of incubation, continuously. 172 eggs were irradiated by CW whereas 208 eggs by PW. The controls were sham-exposed. The foetuses of the experimental eggs and of the controls were macro- and microscopically examined at the end of their incubation. In 62.78% of CW-irradiated, 47.12% of PWirradiated and only in 3.44% of the sham-exposed fetuses abnormalities (development retardation and severe malformations) and embryonic and foetal deaths (embryonic and foetal) were observed. The differences in the effects caused by CW and PW irradiation were statistically evaluated. These results support the aspect that very low power density microwaves applied to the chicken foetuses, in ovo during organogenesis, may cause abnormal development.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
CENELEC ENV50166-2 (1996) Human exposure to electromagnetic fields. High frequency (10 KHz to 300 GHz).
Clark R and Justesen D (1983) Temperature gradients in the microwave irradiated egg: implications for avian teratogenesis, J Microw Power, 18(2): 169-180.
IEEE Std C95.3.1991 (1991) IEEE recommended practice for the measurement of potentially hazardous electromagnetic fields - RF and microwave.
Jensh R, Ludlow J, Weinberg I, Vogel W, Rudder T. and Brend R (1977) Teratogenic effects on rat offspring of non-therm al chronic prenatal microwave irradiation, Teratology, 15(2): 14A.
Jensh R, Ludlow J, Weinberg I, Vogel W, Rudder T. and Brend R (1978) Studies concerning the postnatal effects of protracted lowdose prenatal 915 MHz microwave radiation, Teratology, 17(2):21A.
Larry J, Connover D, Johnson Ρ and JeAnne Β (1983) Teratogenicity of 27.12 MHz radiation in rats is related to duration of hyperthermic exposure, Bioelectromagnetics, 4: 249-255.
Larry J and Connover D (1987) Teratogenic effects of radiofrequency radiation, IEEE Eng Medicine and Biology, 42-46.
McRee D and Hamrick Rh (1997) Exposure of Japanese quail embryos to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation during development, Radiation Res, 71: 355-366.
Magras IN, Xenos ThD and Kouris SS (1998) Experimental exposure of embryos to radiowave radiation, Archives Hellenic Medicine, 15:6,560-564 (in Greek).
Pakhomov A, Akyel Y, Pakhomova O, Stuck Β and Murphy M (1998) Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: A review of the literature, Bioelectromagnetics, 19: 393-413.
Saito Κ, Suzuki Κ and Motoyoshi S (1991) Lethal and teratogenic effects of long-term low-intensity radio frequency radiation at 428 MHz on developing chick embryos, Teratology, 43: 609-614.
Saito Κ., and Suzuki Κ (1995) Maldevelopment of early chick embryos induced by non thermogenic dose radio-frequency radiation at 428 MHz for the first 48 hours, Conj Anom, 35:275-283.
Sisken BF, Fowler I, Mayland C, Ryaby J and Pilla AA (1986) Pulsed E/M fields and normal chick development, J of Bioelectricity, 5: 25-34.
Tanner J. and Rommero-Sierra C (1982) The effects of chronic exposure to very low intensity microwave radiation on domestic fowl, J of Bioelectricity, 1(2): 195-205.
Xenos ThD and Magras IN (1999) An FDTD simulation for very low power density microwave effects on chicken embryos during organogenesis, URSIXXVI general assembly, BP1.4.6:173.
Xenos ThD and Magras IN (2000) A pulsed microwave power density distribution study on chicken embryos during the prehatching period, Proc Millenium Int Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, 302-305.
Most read articles by the same author(s)