| More

Diagnostic approach of anemia in ruminants

Views: 3503 Downloads: 1411


Anemia in ruminants is an abnormal condition characterized by the decrease of the hematocrit (Packed Cell Volume, PCV), the mass of erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells, RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. Anemia is classified as hemolytic, hemorrhagic or anemia caused by the decreased production of erythrocytes; the first two categories are characterized by a regenerative response. Hemorrhagic anemia can be caused by ectoparasites or parasites of the gastrointestinal system, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome, abomasal ulcers, vena cava thrombosis as well as from the genitourinary tract. In addition, primary and secondary hemostatic disorders can be accompanied by hemorrhagic anemia. Hemoparasites, toxins produced from Clostridium perfringens type D and Clostridium hemolyticum and leptospirosis are some of the causes of hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, certain plants, drugs or heavy metals and lack of certain trace elements can cause hemolysis. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia has also been reported in ruminants. The reduced production of erythrocytes can be caused by deficiency of vitamin B12 or iron, as well as by chronic diseases. Pathologic conditions of bone marrow like inflammatory or neoplastic cells filtration and hypoplasia or aplasia of bone marrow are related to reduced production of erythrocytes. After laboratory confirmation by complete blood count analysis, history taking, clinical examination of the animal and specific test depending on the case, are required for the diagnostic approach of anemia and especially for etiological diagnosis. Tachycardia, tachypnea, icterus, mucosal pallor as well as specific symptoms of the underlying disease are observed during the clinical examination of the animal. FAMACHA technique is widely used for the clinical diagnosis and the assessment of the severity of anemia. With respect to complete blood count, apart from the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes indices as Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) are contributing to the classification of anemia. The size and the shape of the erythrocytes, the appearance of inclusions and reticulocytes, which are indicative of regenerative anemia, are evaluated in blood smear. Rarely, examination of bone marrow is carried out, for the differentiation of anemia as regenerative or non-regenerative. In particular, the confirmation of immune- mediate anemia is based on Coomb’s test for the detection of autoagglutination. Except from hemorrhage, blood loss is detected at urinalysis or feces microscopy for the presence of blood and/or parasites. Finally, serological and molecular techniques for the detection of infectious agents, as well as specific toxicological analysis are performed in various biological materials.


anemia; ruminants; diagnostic approach

Full Text:



Abutarbush SM (2015) Hematological and serum biochemical findings in clinical cases of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease. J Infect Dev Ctries 9(3):283-288.

Al-Habsi K, Johnson HE, Kadim TI, Srikandakumar A, Annamalai K, Al-Busaidy R, Mahgoub O (2007) Effects of low concentrations of dietary cobalt on liveweight gains, haematology, serum vitamin B12 and biochemistry of Omani goats. Vet J 173:131-137.

Alani AJ, Herbert IV (1988) Pathogenesis of Infection with Theileria recondite (Wales) isolated from Haemaphysalis punctate from North Wales. Vet Parasitol 28:293-301.

Allen JG, Masters HG, Peet RL, Mullins KR, Lewis RD, Skirrow SZ, Fry J (1983) Zing toxicity in ruminants. J Comp Path 93:363-377.

Angelidou E, Kostoulas P, Leontides L (2014) Flock-level factors associated with the risk of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Greek dairy goat flocks. Prevent Vet Med 117:233-241.

Anosa VO, Logan- Henfrey LL, Shaw MK (1992) A light and electron microscopic study of changes in blood and bone marrow in acute hemorrhagic Trypanosoma vivax infection in calves. Vet Pathol 29:33-45.

Ashuma, Sharma A, Das Singla L, Kaur P, Bal MS, Batth BK, Juyal PD (2013) Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile of Anaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India). Asian Pac J Trop Med pp 139-144.

Aslani MR, Mohri M, Movassaghi AR (2005) Heinz body anaemia associated with onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in a flock of sheep. Comp Clin Path 14:118-120.

Bal MS, Mahajan V, Filia G, Kaur P, Singh A (2016) Diagnosis and management of bovine babesiosis outbreaks in cattle in Punjab state. Vet World 9(12):1370-1374.

Baldissera MD, Pivoto FL, Bottari NB, Tonin AA, Machado G,Aires AR, Rocha JFX, Pelinson LP, Dalenogare DP, Schetinger MRC, Morsch VM, Leal MLR, Da Silva AS (2015) Effect of zinc supplementation on ecto-adenosine deaminase activity in lambs infected by Haemonchus contortus: Highlights on acute phase of disease. Exp Parasitol 151-152:34-38.

Billinis C, Leontides L, Amiridis GC, Spyrou V, Kostoulas P, Sofia M (2005) Prevalence of BVDV infection in Greek dairy herds. Prevent Vet Med 72:75-79.

Biryomumaisho S, Rwakishaya EK, Melville SE, Cailleau A, Lubega GW (2013) Livestock trypanosomosis in Uganda: parasite heterogeneity and anaemia status of naturally infected cattle, goats and pigs. Parasitol Res 112:1443-1450.

Bordoloi G, Jas R, Ghosh JD (2012) Changes in the haemato-biochemical pattern due to experimentally induced haemonchosis in Sahabadi sheep. J Parasit Dis 36(1):101-105.

Borelli V, Lucioli J, Furlan FH, Hoepers PG, Roveda JF, Traverso SD, Gava A (2009) Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:402-405.

Bott NJ, Campbell BE, Beveridge I, Chilton NB, Rees D, Hunt PW, Gasser RB (2009) A combined microscopic-molecular method for the diagnosis of strongylid infections in sheep. Int J Parasitol 39:1277-1287.

Braun U, Nuss K, Wehbrink D, Rauch S, Pospischil A (2008) Clinical and ultrasonographic findings, diagnosis and treatment of pyelonephritis in 17 cows. The Vet Journal 175(2):240-248.

Braun U, Schmid T, Muggli E, Steininger K, Previtali M, Gerspach C, Pospischil A, Nuss K, (2010) Clinical findings and treatment in 63 cows with haemorrhagic bowel syndrome. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk (Nov):515-522.

Breeze RG, Pirie HM, Selman IE, Wiseman A (1976) Pulmonary arterial thrombo- embolism and pulmonary arterial mycotic aneurisms in cattle with vena caval thrombosis: a condition resembling the hunges- stovin syndrome. Path 119:229-237.

Bundza A, Sugden EA, Nielsen K, Hartin KE (1982) Copper toxicosis in lambs fed milk replacer. Can Vet J 23:102-105.

Burriel AR, Dalley C, Woodward MJ (2003) Prevalence of Leptospira species among farmed and domestic animals in Greece. Vet Rec 153:146-148.

Chi Z, Liu R, Yang B, Zhang H (2010) Toxic interaction mechanism between oxytetracycline and bovine hemoglobin. J Hazard Mater 180:741-747.

Cihan H, Temizel EM, Yilmaz Z, Ozarda Y (2016) Serum iron status and its relation with haematological indexes before and after parturition in sheep. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 22(5):679-683.

Cregar LC, Wiedmeyer CE, Ringen DR, Evans TJ, Johnson GC, Kuroki K (2012) Copper toxicosis in a Boer goat. Vet Clin Pathol 41(4):502-508.

Dabak M, Karapinar T, Gulacti I, Bulut H, Kizil O, Aydin S (2007) Hemorrhagic syndrome–like disease in calves with bovine viral diarrhea and mucosal disease complex. J Vet Intern Med 21:514-518.

Del Piero F, Poppenga RH (2006) Chlorophacinone exposure causing an epizootic of acute fatal hemorrhage in lambs. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:483–485.

Denipitiya DTH, Chandrasekharan NV, Abeyewickreme W, Hartskeer RA,and M. D. Hapugoda MD (2017) Identification of cattle, buffaloes and rodents as reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. BMC Res Notes 10:134.

Deutskens F, Lamp B, Riedel CM, Wentz E, Lochnit G, Doll K, Thiel HJ, Rümenapf T (2011) Vaccine-induced antibodies linked to bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) recognize cattle major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Vet Res 42:97.

Divers TJ and Peek SF (2008) Rebhun’s disease of dairy cattle. 2nd Edition, Saunders, Philadelphia Dorny P, Stoliaroff V, Charlier J, Meas S, Sorn S, Chea B, Holl D, Van Aken D, Vercruysse J (2011) Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, Fasciola and Paramphistomum in cattle in Cambodia and their association with morbidity parameters. Vet Parasitol 175:293-299.

Draksler D, Nunez M, Apella MC, Aguero G, Gontalez S (2002) Copper deficiency in Creole goat kids. Reprod Nutr 42:243-249.

Esmaeilnejad B, Tavassoli M, Asri-Rezaei S (2012) Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Vet Res Forum 3(1):31-36.

FAO (1998), FAMACHA Information guide, http://www.fao.org/

docs/eims/upload/agrotech/1906/FAMACHA%20InfoGuide-FEB04v4final.pdf [accessed 4 September 2017]

Favero FC, Buzzulini C, Cruz BC, Felippelli G, Maciel WG, Salatta B, Siniscalchi B, Lopes WDZ, Teixeira WFP, Soares VE, de Oliveira GP, da Costa AJ (2016) Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological characteristics of abomasums. Exp Parasitol 170:125-134.

Fukunaka M, Toyoda Y, Kobayashi Y, Furuoka H, Inokuma H (2010) Bone Marrow aplasia with pancytopenia and hemorrhage in a Japanese black calf. J Vet Med Sci 72(12):1655-1656.

Genova SG, Streeter RN, Velguth KE, Snider TA, Kocan KM, SimpsonKM (2011) Severe anemia associated with Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in a mature cow. Can Vet J 52:1018-1021.

Giadinis ND, Chochlakis D, Ioannou I, Kritsepi-Konstantinou M, Papadopoulos E, Psaroulaki A, Karatzias H (2011) Haemorrhagic Diathesis in a Ram with Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection. J Comp Path 144:82-85.

Giadinis ND, Katsoulos PD, Chochlakis D, Tselentis Y, Ntais P, Lafi SQ, Karatzias H, Psaroulaki A (2015) Serological investigation for West Nile virus, Anaplasma ovis and Leishmania infantum in Greek cattle. Vet Ital 51(3):205-209.

Giannitti F, Macias Rioseco M, Garcia GP, Beingesser J, Woods LW, Puschner B, Uzal FA (2014) Diagnostic exercise: Hemolysis and sudden death in lambs. Vet Pathol 51(3):624-627.

Gkiourtzidis K, Frey J, Bourtzi- Hatzopoulou E, Iliadis N, Sarris K (2001) PCR detection and prevalence of α-, β-, β2-, ε-, ι- and enterotoxin genes in Clostridium perfringens isolated from lambs with clostridial dysentery. Vet Microb 82:39-43.

Gladden N, Haining H, Henderson L, Marchesi F, Graham L, McDonald M, Murdoch FR, Bruguera Sala A, Orr J, Ellis K (2016) A case report of Mycoplasma wenyonii associated immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia in a dairy cow. Irish Vet J 69:1.

Gokce HI, Woldehiwet Z (1999) Differential haematological effects of tick-borne fever in sheep and goat. J. Vet. Med. 46:105-115

Grace D, Himsted H, Sidibe I, Randolph T, Clausen PH (2007) Comparing FAMACHA© eye color chart and Hemoglobin Color Scale tests for detecting anemia and improving treatment of bovine trypanosomosis in West Africa. Vet Parasitol 147:26-39.

Green LE, Graham M, Morgan KL (1997) Preliminary study of the effect of iron dextran on a non-regenerative anaemia of housed lambs Vet Rec 140:219-222.

Grova L, Olesen I, Steinshamn H Stuen S (2011) Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth.Acta Vet Scand 53:30.

Heidarpour M, Fakhrieh M, Aslani MR, Mohri M, Keywanloo M (2013) Oxidative effects of long- term onion (Allium cepa) feeding on goat erythrocytes. Comp Clin Pathol 22:195-202.

Hemalatha S, Parimal Roy, Purushothaman V, Iyue M (2013) Paratuberculosis in different breeds of sheep: A retrospective study of cases. Int J Mycobacteriol 2:166-170.

Henniger T, Henniger P, Grossmann T, Distl O, Ganter M, von Loewenich FD (2013) Congenital infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a calf in northern Germany. Acta Vet Scand 55:38.

Hindson JC and Winter AC (1996) Outline clinical diagnosis in sheep. Wiley-Blackwell, London

Izzo MM, Poe I, Horadagoda N, De Vosd AJ, JK (2010) Housea Haemolytic anaemia in cattle in NSW associated with Theileria infection. Aust Vet J 88:45-51.

Jubb TF, Jerrett IV, Browning JW, Thomas KW (1990) Haemoglobinuria and hypophosphataemia in postparturient dairy cows without dietary deficiency of phosphorus. Austrolian Vet J 67:86-89.

Kantzoura V, Kuam MK, Demiris N, Feidas H, Theodoropoulos G (2011) Risk factors and geospatial modelling for the presence of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and goat farms in the Greek temperate Mediterranean environment. Parasitol 138:926-938.

Katsoulos PD, Christodoulopoulos G, Karatzia MA, Pourliotis K, Minas A (2011) Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep. Vet Parasitol 179:262-265.

Katsoulos PD, S. C. Chaintoutis SC,Dovas CI, Polizopoulou ZS, Brellou GD, Agianniotaki EI, Tasioudi KE, Chondrokouki E, Papadopoulos O, Karatzias H, Boscos C (2017). Investigation on the incidence of adverse reactions, viraemia and haematological changes following field immunization of cattle using a live attenuated vaccine against lumpy skin disease. Transbound Emerg Dis. 1–12.

Katunguka-Rwakishaya E, Murray M, Holmes PH (1997) Pathophysiology of Trypanosoma congolense infection in two breeds of sheep, Scottish blackface and Finn Dorset. Vet Parasitol 68:215-225.

Keshavarzi B, Seradj A, Akbari Z, Moore F, Shahraki AR, Pourjafar M (2015) Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, Western Iran. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69:44-53.

Knight RA (1980) Response of lambs to challenge infections after repeated inoculations with Fasciola hepatica cysts. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 47(2):186-191.

Kouam MK, Diakou A, Kantzoura V, Feidas H, Theodoropoulou H, Theodoropoulos G (2014) An analysis of seroprevalence and risk factors for parasitic infections of economic importance in small ruminants in Greece. Vet J 202:146-152.

Lee SH, Kim S, Park SC, Kim MJ (2002) Cytotoxic Activities of Leptospira interrogans Hemolysin SphH as a Pore-Forming Protein on Mammalian Cells. Infect Immun 70:315-322

Lotfollahzadeh S, Mohri M, Bahadori ShR, Dezfouly MRM, Tajik P (2008) The relationship between normocytic, hypochromic anaemia and iron concentration together with hepatic enzyme activities in cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica. J Helminthol 82:85-88.

Martinez-Moreno A, Jimenez V, Martinez-Cruz MS, Martinez-Moreno FJ, Becerra C, Hernfindez S (1997) Triclabendazole treatment in experimental goat fasciolosis: anthelmintic efficacy and influence in antibody response and pathophysiology of the

disease. Vet Parasitol 68:57-67.

Masseau I, Fecteau G, Desrochers A, Francoz D, Lanthier I, Vaillancourt D (2004) Hemoperitoneum caused by the rupture of a granulosa cell tumor in a Holstein heifer. Can Vet J 45:504-506.

Matsuda K, Nomoto H, Kawamura Y, Someya Y, Koiwa M, Taniyama H (2010) Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a Japanese black cow. Vet Pathol 47(2):339-342.

McKenzie RA (1978) Bovine enzootic haematuria in Queensland. Aust Vet J 54:61-64.

Moll, G, Lohding A, Young AS, Keitch BL (1986) Epidemiology of Theileriosis in calves in an endemic are of Kenya. Vet Parasitol 19:255-273.

Moors E, Gauly M (2009) Is the FAMACHA© chart suitable forevery breed? Correlations between FAMACHA© scores and different traits of mucosa colour in naturally parasite infected sheep breeds. Vet Parasitol 166:108-111.

Nassiri SM, Darvishi S, Khazraiinia P (2011) Bovine immunemediated hemolytic anemia: 13 cases (November 2008–August 2009). Vet Clin Pathol 40(4):459-466.

Ogilvie TH (1998) Hematopoietic and hemolympatic disorders. In Large animal, internal medicine 1st Edition. Williams and Wilkins, London: pp 321-347.

Ok M, Sen I, turgut K, Irmak K (2001) Plasma gastrin activity and the diagnosis of bleeding abomasal ulcers in cattle. J Vet Med A 48:563-568.

Omer OH, El-Malik KE, Mahmouda OM, Haroun EM, Hawas A, Sweeney D, Magzoub M (2002) Haematological profiles in pure bred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia. Vet Parasitol 107:161-168.

Papadopoulos B, Perie NM, Uilenberg G (1996) Piroplasms of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece 1. Serological cross-reactions Vet Parasitol 63:41-56.

Papadopoulos E, Arsenos G, Ptochos S, Katsoulos P, Oikonomou G, Karatzia MA, Karatzias H (2014) First report of Besnoitia besnoiti seropositive cattle in Greece. J Hellenic Vet Med 64(2):115-120.

Polizopoulou ZS (1991) Subclinical lead poisoning in sheep: epidemiologic and experimental study. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki. (https://www.didaktorika.gr)

Prakash AS, Pereira TN, Smith BL, Shaw G, Seawright AA (1996) Mechanism of bracken fern Carcinogenesis: Evidence for H-ras activation via initial adenine alkylation by ptaquiloside. Nat toxins 4:221-227.

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD (2006) Diseases of the hemolymphatic and immune systems. In Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th Edition, Saunders Ltd, Philadelphia: pp 439-469.

Rae HA (1999) Onion toxicosis in a herd of beef cows. Can Vet J 40:55-57.

Rana T, Bera AK, Das S, Bhattacharya D, Bandyopadhyay D, Pan D, Das AK (2010) Effect of chronic intake of arsenic-contaminated water on blood oxidative stress indices in cattle in an arsenicaffected zone. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1327-1332.

Randhawa SS, Sharma DK, Randhawa CS, Gill BS, Brar RS, Singh J (1995) An outbreak of Bacillary haemooglobinuria in sheep in India. Trop Anim Health Prod 27:31-36.

Ross JG, Todd JR, Dow C (1966) Single experimental infection of calves with the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus 1758). J Comp Path 76:67-81.

Saleh MA (2008) Circulating oxidative stress status in desert sheep naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Vet Parasitol 154:262-269.

Schlerka G, Tataruch F, Hogler S, Url A, Krametter R, Kossler D, Schmidt P (2004) Acute lead poisoning in cows due to feeding of lead contaminated ash residue. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 117(1-2):52-6.

Shemanchuk JA, Haufe WO, Thompson COM (1960) Anemia in range cattle heavily infested with the short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (NITZ) (Anoplura: Haematopinidae). Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 24:158-161.

Singh J, Gupta SK, Singh R, Hussain RA (2014) Etiology and haemato-biochemical alterations in cattle of Jammu suffering from anaemia. Vet World 7(2):49-51.

Singh KS, Mukhopadhayay SK, Ganguly S, Niyogi D, Thiyagaseelan C, Ali I (2011) Hematological and biochemical studies of stephanofilarial dermatitis in naturally infected cattle of West Bengal, India. Res Vet Sci 91:194-195.

Smith MC and Sherman DM (2009) Goat medicine. 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell.

Sonawane GG, Tripathi BN (2013) Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne’s disease. Sonawane and Tripathi Springer-Plus 2:45.

Sotomaior CS, Rosalinski-Moraes F, da Costa LRB, Maia D, Monteiro ALG, van Wyk JA (2012) Sensitivity and specificity of the FAMACHA© system in Suffolk sheep and crossbred Boer goats. Vet Parasitol 190:114-119.

Souma T, Suzuki N, Yamamoto M (2015) Renal erythropoietinproducing cells in health and disease. Front Physiol 6:167.

Steffen DJ, Elliott GS, Leipold HW, Smith JE (1992) Congenital dyserythropoiesis and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves: hematologic, biochemical, bone marrow cytologic, electrophoretic, and flow cytometric findings. J Vet Diagn Invest 4:31-37.

Stock ML, Smith BI, Engiles JB (2011) Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow. Can Vet J 52:409-413.

Stogdale L (1978) Chronic copper poisoning in dairy cows. Australian Vet J 54:139-141.

Stromberagn PC, Gyillot FS (1987) Hematology in the regressive phase of bovine psoroptic scabies. Vet Pathol 24:371-377.

Suttle BF, Jones DG, Woolliams C, Woolliams JA (1987) Heinz body anaemia in lambs with deficiencies of copper or selenium.Brit J Nutr 58:539-548.

Suzuki J, Sasaoka F, Fujihara M, Watanabe Y, Asaki T, Oda S, Kobayashi S, Sato R, Nagai K, Harasawa R (2011) Molecular identification of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis’ in sheep with hemolytic anemia. J Vet Med Sci 73(8):1113-1115.

Takagi M, Yamato O, Sasaki Y, Mukai S, Fushimi Y, Yoshida T, Mizukami K, Shoubudani T, Amimiti K, Chuma T, Shahada F, Endo Y, Deguchi E (2009) Successful treatment of bacillary hemoglobinuria in Japanese black cows. J Vet Med Sci 71(8):1105-1108.

Tartour G, Obeid HM, Adam SEI, Idris OF (1973) Haematological changes in sheep and calves following prolonged oral administration of Ipomoea carnea. Trop Anita Health Prod 5:284-292.

Tasioudi KE, Antoniou SE, Iliadou P, Sachpatzidis A, Plevraki E, Agianniotaki EI, Fouki C, Mangana-Vougiouka O, Chondrokouki E, Dile C (2016) Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015. Transbound Emerg Dis 63:260-265.

Trueman KF, Blight GW (1978) The effect of age on resistance of cattle to Babesia bovis. Aust Vet J 54:301-305.

Ulvund JM (1990) Ovine White-Liver Disease (OWLD). Changes in Blood Chemistry. Acta Vet. Scand. 31:277-286.

Van Aken V, Vercruysse J, Dargantes AP, Lagapa JT, Raes S, Shaw DJ (1997) Pathophysiological aspects of Mecistocirrus digitatus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection in calves. Vet Parasitol 69:255-263.

Vasileiou NGC, Fthenakis GC, Amiridis GS, Athanasiou LV, Birtsas P, Chatzopoulos DS, Chouzouris TM, Giannakopoulos A, Ioannidi KS, Kalonaki SN, Katsafadou AI, Kyriakis CS, Mavrogianni VS, Papadopoulos E, Spyrou V, Valiakos G, Venianaki AP, Billinis C (2016) Experiences from the 2014 outbreak of bluetongue in Greece. Small Rum Res 142:61-68.

Vatn S, Ulvund MJ (2000) Abomasal bloat, haemorrhage and ulcers in young Norwegian lambs Vet Rec 146:35-39.

Vatta AF, Krecek RC, Letty BA, van der Linde MJ, Grimbeek RJ, de Villiers JF, Motswatswe PW, Molebiemang GS, Boshoff HM, Hansen JW (2002) Incidence of Haemonchus spp. and effect on haematocrit and eye colour in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa. Vet Parasitol 103:119-131.

Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (2010) Normal hematology of cattle. In Schalm’s Veterinary hematology, 6th Edition, Wiley- Blackwell, pp 829-835.

WHO (2004) Hemoglobin color scale: Operational research agenda and study design. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 16.

Winter A, Clarkson M (1992) Anaemia in lambs and kids caused by feeding cow colostrum. In Practice 14:283-286.

Xu LR (1992) Bracken poisoning and enzootic haematuria in cattle in China. Res Vet Sci 53:116-121.

Yang J, Liu Z, Guan G, Li Y, Chen Z, Ma M, Liu A, Q Ren, Wang J, Luo J, Yin H (2015) Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China. Ann Agric Environ Med 22(2):208-211.

Yasini SP, Khaki Z, Rahbari S, Kazemi B, Salar Amoli J, Gharabaghi A, Jalali SM (2012) Hematologic and clinical aspects of experimental ovine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma ovis in Iran. Iranian J Parasitol 7(4):91-98.

Yeruham I, Avidar Y, Harrus S, Fishman Z, Aroch I (2003) Immunemediated thrombocytopenia and putative haemolytic anaemia associated with a polyvalent botulism vaccination in a cow. Vet Rec 153:502-504.

Yeruham I, Hadani A, Galker F, Avidar Y, Bogin E (1998) Clinical, clinico-pathological and serological studies of Babesia ovis in experimentally infected sheep. J Vet Med B 45:385-394.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.