Iodine Intoxication in Beef Cattle in Turkey - Clinical, Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation

iodine toxicity beef cattle
S. Şentürk
E. M. Temizel
A. Ö. Karakuş
S. Kasap
F. Akkaya
Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals. The incidence of iodine poisoning in cattle is low. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical findings, serum glucose and cholesterol, thyroid hormone and urine iodine levels in cattle exposed to excess iodine. All of the clinical data were determined following the addition of potassium iodide to the drinking water. Inappetence, cough, and hyperthermia were notable clinical findings. We detected a very high iodine level (470 μg /L) in an analysis of the drinking water samples. A biochemical analysis revealed that the serum cholesterol levels in the affected cattle were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in healthy cattle. However, the serum glucose in the affected cattle was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to healthy cattle. The iodine concentration in the urine of the affected animals was also significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the healthy animals. Importantly, a hematological analysis indicated leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Several clinical signs, including hyperthermia, tachycardia, alopecia, and a naso-oral discharge, based on suspected history can suggest iodine intoxication. In addition, biochemical parameters, such as urine iodine, serum glucose and cholesterol levels, were observed to be different between healthy and affected cattle. The thyroid function in affected cattle should also be studied.
Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Brent GA. (2012). Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action. J Clin Invest 122: 3035–3043.
British Agricultural Research Council (1965) The nutrient requirements of farm livestock. 1st ed. Agricultural Research Council, London.
Bustad LK, Fuller JM (1970) Thyroid function in domestic animals. Lab. Anim. Care 20:561.
Derscheid RJ, van Geelen A, Berkebile AR, Gallup JM, Hostetter SJ, Banfi B, McCray PB Jr, Ackermann MR (2014). Increased concentration of iodide in airway secretions is associated with reduced respiratory syncytial virus disease severity. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 50(2):389-97.
Döcke F (1994) Veterinär-medizinische Endokrinologie. 3rd ed. Gustav Fischer; Verlag Jena. pp 228–264.
Ferrannini E, Iervasi G, Cobb J, Ndreu N, Nannipieri M (2017) Insulin resistance and normal thyroid hormone levels: prospective study and metabolomic analysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 312(5):429-436
Gesellschaft für Ernährungsphysiologie der Haustiere (2001) Empfehlungenzur Energie- und Nährstoffversorgung der Milchkühe und Aufzuchtrinder. 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main, DLG-Verlags GmbH. pp 136.
Haggard DL, Stowe HD, Conner GH, Johnson DW (1980) Immunologic effects of experimental iodine toxicosis in young cattle. Am J Vet Res 41:539-543.
Herzig I, Riha J, Pisarikova B (1996) Urinary iodine levels as an indicator in dairy farms. Vet. Med. – Czech 41:97-101
Hetzel BS, Dunn JT (1989) The iodine deficiency disorders: their nature and prevention. Annu Rev Nutr 9:21-38.
Hillman D, Curtis AR (1980) Chronic iodine toxicity in dairy cattle: Blood chemistry, leukocytes, and milk iodine. J. Dairy Sci 63:55–63.
Klieverik LP, Janssen SF, van Riel A, Foppen E, Bisschop PH, Serlie MJ, Boelen A, Ackermans MT, Sauerwein HP, Fliers E, Kalsbeek A (2009) Thyroid hormone modulates glucose production via a sympathetic pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(14):5966–5971.
Koukkou EG, Roupas ND, Markou KB (2017) Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health. Minerva Med 108(2):136-146.
Koutras DA (2000) Thyroidopathies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 900:77–88
Leirer R, Körber R, Jäkel L (1983) Untersuchungen zum Jodmangelsyndrom beim Rind. Monatsh. Vetrinärmed. 38:103–109.
Leung K, Conwey EM, Conner GH (1980) Effect of dietary iodide on hypophyseal and thyroid hormone secretions in Holstein-Friesian heifers. Am. J. Vet. Res 41:1402–1407.
Leung AM, Braverman LE (2014) Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol 10(3):136–142.
Meyer U, Weigel K, Schöne F, Leiterer M, Flaschowsky G (2007) Effect of dietary iodine on growth and iodine status of growing fattening bulls. Livest Sci 115(2): 219-225.
Minelli R, Braverman LE, Gardini E, Salvi M, Fiaccadori F, Ugo-lotti G, Roti E (1997) Effects of excess iodine administration on thyroid function in euthyroid patients with a previous episode of thyroid dysfunction induced by interferon-alpha treatment. Clin Endocrinol 47(3):357-361.
National Research Council (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th ed, Nat. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
Nikitin VN, Babenko NA (1989) Thyroid hormones and lipid metabolism. Fiziol. Zh 35:91-98
Obregon MJ (2014) Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones. Front Physiol 11(5):479.
Olson WG, Stevens JB, Anderson J, Haggard DW (1984) Iodine toxicosis in six herds of dairy cattle. J. Am. Vet. M. Ass 84:179–181.
Ozkan P (2008) Urinary Iodine Levels and Thyroid Function Tests of Neonates And Their Mothers In Aydin/Turkey. Master Thesis.
Paulíková I, Kováč G, Bíreš J, Paulík Š, Seidel H, Nagy O (2002) Iodine Toxicity In Ruminants. Vet. Med. – Czech 47(12):343–350
Pennington JAT (1990) Iodine Concentrations in US Milk: Variation Due to Time, Season, and Region. J Dairy Sci 73(12): 3421-3427.
Pucci E, Chiovato L, Pinchera A (2000) Thyroid and lipid metabolism. Int j Obes 24:109-112
Rachel J. Perry, Varman T. Samuel, Kitt F. Petersen, Gerald I. (2014). Shulman. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes Nature 5; 510(7503): 84–91
Schnur E (2015) D.A.CH—Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaft fürErnährung. Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 1st ed. Frankfurt/M., Umschau Braus GmbH Verlagsgesellschaft 179–184.
Shin DJ, Osborne TF. (2003) Thyroid hormone regulation and cholesterol metabolism are connected through sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). J Biol Chem 278:34, 114–118.
Gälman C, Bonde Y, Matasconi M, Angelin B,Rudling M (2008). Dramatically increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol following hypophysectomy is normalized by thyroid hormone. Gastroenterology, 134:11, 27–36.
Soldin OP (2002) Controversies in urinary iodine determinations. Clin Biochem 35:575–579
Stilwell G, Reynolds PJ, Parameswaran V, Blizzard L, Greenaway TM, Burgess JR (2008) The influence of gestational stage on urinary iodine excretion in pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93(5):1737-42.
Walker PG, Constable PD, Morin JK, Foreman DE, Drackley JH, Thurmon JC (1998) Comparison of hypertonic saline – dextran and lactated ringers solution for resuscitating severely dehydrated calves with diarrhea. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:113-121.
White SD (1998) Smíšené systémové dermatózy. Merck Veterinary Manual (Cz/Sk). 8th ed. Whitehouse Station, N.J:Merck & CO. INC. 683pp–687pp.
Most read articles by the same author(s)