| More

Assessment of the efficacy of routine vaccination on the magnitude of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in Kafrelsheikh governorate, Delta Region, Egypt

Views: 863 Downloads: 494
A. A. AL-HOSARY, A. EL-TANOBY, A. F. OREIBY, Y. M. HEGAZY, S. KHALEEL ABD-ELGHAFFAR
A. A. AL-HOSARY, A. EL-TANOBY, A. F. OREIBY, Y. M. HEGAZY, S. KHALEEL ABD-ELGHAFFAR

Abstract


Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease causes a serious economic impact on livestock production and trading. FMD is an endemic disease in Egypt and a national control program that depends on routine obligatory vaccination of all ruminant species is being followed for disease control. A nation-wide epidemic of FMD was commenced in early 2015 and typical clinical signs of the disease were observed even in vaccinated animals. The morbidity and case fatality rates were high enough to be investigated. In the current study, non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals of different sex and ages were examined to evaluate the efficacy of FMD different vaccines used in Egypt. Clinical, post-mortem and serological examinations were used to confirm the infection, while the molecular investigation was applied to identify the serotype responsible for this epidemic. The incidence rate and the attributable proportion (fraction) of FMD cases which could be avoided by vaccination and vaccine efficacy were calculated. The obtained results confirmed the infection with FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. The incidence of FMD was 86.67% among non-vaccinated animals, while it was ranged from 15% to 31.8% among vaccinated animals according to the type of vaccine used. The attributable fraction was 73.9% and the efficacy of the three used vaccines was 63.3%, 76.92% and 82.25% for Tri-Aphthovac, VSVRI and Meriel vaccines, respectively. In conclusion, vaccination in Egypt is able to minimize the magnitude of outbreaks caused by the same serotype found in the vaccine but was not able to prevent the infection and eliminate the disease. The highest vaccination efficacy was found in Mid-aged animals and male cattle.

Keywords


FMD; Vaccine efficacy; Egypt

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aidaros HA (2002) Regional status and approaches to control and eradication

of foot and mouth disease in the Middle East and North Africa, Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 21: 451-458.

Alexandersen S, Mowat N (2005) Foot-and-mouth disease: host range and pathogenesis, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 288: 9–42.

Alexandersen S, Zhang Z, Donaldson AI, Garland AJM (2003) The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, J Comp Pathol 129:1–36.

Brocchi E, Bergmann IE, Dekker A, Paton DJ, Sammin DJ, Greiner M, Grazioli S, De Simone F, Yadin H, Haas B, Bulut N, Malirat V, Neitzert E, Goris N, Parida S, Sørensen K, De Clercq K (2006) Comparative evaluation of six ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of FMDV, Vaccine 24: 6966-79.

Clavijo A, Wright P, Kitching P (2004) Developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in FMD, Vet J 167:9-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1090- 0233(03)00087-X

El-Khabaz KAS, Al-Hosary AAT (2017) Detection and identification of Foot and Mouth disease virus serotypes in Assiut governorate, Egypt, J Adv Vet Anim Res 4: 32-38.

EL-Kholy AA, Soliman HMT, Abdel Rahman AO (2007) Molecular Typing of a new foot-and-mouth disease virus in Egypt, Vet Rec 160:695-697.

EL-Shehawy L, Abu-Elnaga H, Talat A, EL-Garf E, Zakaria A, Azab AA (2011) Nucleotide sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus Egyptian strains, J Am Sci 7: 430-434.

FAO (2012) Foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype SAT2 in Egypt and Libya, Empres watch 25.

Farag MA, El- Kilany S, Abdel El- Rahman AO (2006) The impact of live animal importation on the epizootiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Egypt, 8th Sci Vet Med Zag Conf (31 Aug.–3 Sept. 2006) Hurghada.

Hailu M, Mengistie T, Negussie H, Alemu S, Asaminew T (2010) Incidence of foot and mouth disease and its effect on milk yield in dairy cattle at Andassa dairy farm Northwest Ethiopia, J Agric Biol 1: 969-973.

Jackson PGG, Cockcroft PD (2002) Clinical examination of farm animals, Blackwell Science Ltd, UK

Kandeil A, El-Shesheny R, Kayali G, Moatasim Y, Bagato O, Darwish M, Gaffar A, Younes A, Farag T, Kutkat MA, Ali MA (2013) Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt, Arch Virol 158: 619-627.

Fawzy S, Oreiby A.F, Yamen Hegazy and Al-Gaabary M.H. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAPS) of Veterinarians and Farmers on Foot and Mouth Disease with Estimation of Risk Factors for Animal Infection in Egypt, Global Veterinaria 18 (3): 221-225, 2017.

Kibore B, Gitao CG, Sangul A, Kitala P (2013) Foot and mouth disease sero-prevalence in cattle in Kenya, JVMAH 5: 262-268.

Knowles NJ, Samuel AR (2003) Molecular epidemiology of foot-and mouth disease virus, Virus Res 91: 65-80.

Knowles NJ, Wadsworth J, Reid SM, Swabey KG, El-Kholy AA, Abd El-Rahman AO, Soliman HM, Ebert K, Ferris NP, Hutchings GH, Statham RJ, King DP, Paton DJ (2007) Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt, Emerg Infect Dis 13: 1593-1596. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070252

Mackay DK, Forsyth MA, Davies PR, Salt JS (1998) Antibody to the nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated animals exposed to infection, Vet Q 20: 2:S9-11.

OIE Terrestrial Manual (2009) Chapter 2.1.5. Foot and mouth disease, 1-29.

Parida S (2009) Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus: strategies and effectiveness, Expert Rev Vaccines 8: 347-365.

Renjun I. Yanfen M, Lijuan Z, Yasong L, Ciaoqing, C, Jiusheng W, Songhua H (2016) Enhanced immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine by oral administration of ginseng stemp leaf, Immunopharm Immunot 38: 257-263.

Shawky M, Abd El-Aty M, Hiam MF, Hind MD, Ehab EI, Wael MG, Sonia AR, Abu-Elnaga H, Mohamed A A, Abd El-kreem A, Farouk EM (2012) Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease SAT2 Virus during Outbreak 2012 in Egypt, J Vet Adv 3:60-68.

Thrusfield M (2005) Veterinary epidemiology 3rd Ed. Blackwell science publishing


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 A.A. AL-HOSARY, A. EL-TANOBY, A.F. OREIBY, Y.M. HEGAZY, S. KHALEEL ABD-ELGHAFFAR

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.