Ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of Setaria species based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers in cattle (Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Iran

Setaria species Ultrastructural phylogenetic Iran
The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics and genetic diversity of Setaria parasites from cattle (n=696) and buffalo (n= 522) from Khuzestan province of Iran and to compare them with available data from other countries/regions by sequences analysis of the 12S Rdna and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) genes. Based on SEM (Scanning Electron Micrographs) and light microscopy, all the isolated worms were identified as Setaria labiatopapillosa. Our results showed that 12.3% of cattle were infected with Setaria spp., while no infection was found in buffaloes. The maximal prevalence was observed in cattle younger than one year old. The prevalence rate was not influenced by the season of the year or gender. Comparison of the obtained sequences from Setaria with sequences of Setaria spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species S. labiatopapillosa. The phylogenetic tree constructed using cox1 and 12S rDNA genes of several other filarial nematodes showed that the Khuzestan isolates share a common branch with S. labiatopapillosa from other regions. Intra-specific variation was observed in 12S rDNA but not in cox1. In conclusion, our results indicating that S. labiatopapillosa is the main species involved in the spread of setarial infection in south-west of Iran and the identified worms corresponded mostly to worms that reported previously throughout other continents.
Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Almeida AJ, Deobhankar KP, Bhopale MK, Zaman V, Renapurkar, DM (1991) Scanning electron microscopy of Setaria cervi adult male worms. Int J Parasitol 21:119-121.
Anderson RC (2000) Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates: Their Development and Transmission. 2nd Ed. New York: CABI Publishing. pp 467-529.
Bazargani T, Eslami A, Gholami GR, Molai A, Ghafari-Charati J, Dawoodi J, Ashrafi J, (2008). Cerebrospinal Nematodiasis of Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Iran. Iran J Parasitol 3(1): 16-20.
Brunner FS, Eizaguirre C (2016) Can environmental change affect host/parasite-mediated speciation? Zoology 119 (4): 384-394.
Casiraghi M, Anderson TJC, Bandi C, Bazzocchi C, Genchi C, 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts. Parasitology 122: 93-103.
Cancrini G, Pietrobelli M, Frangipane Di Regalbonot A, Tampieri MP (1997) Mosquitoes as vectors of Setaria labiatopapillosa. Int J Parasitol 27(9): 1061-1064.
Chauhan PPS, Pande BP (1980). On the occurrence of Setaria labiatopapillosa in the intestinal lining of buffalo calf. Indian J Parasitol 4: 89-91.
Davoodi J (2014) Prevalence of setariosis in small and large ruminant in Miyaneh city, Northwest of Iran. Sci J Vet Adv 3(1): 1-5.
Eamsobhana P, Lim PE and Yong HS, (2013) Molecular phylogeny of filarial worms (Nematoda: Filarioidea). Raffles B Zool 29: 99-109.
FAO (2007) The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Edited by Barbara Rischkowsky and Dafydd Pilling. Rome. pp. 101-112.
Farhadinejad R, Mousavi M, Amraee K (2015). The species composition of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Mahshahr district, Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Arch Razi Inst 70(2): 89-95.
Fujii T, Hayashi T, Ishimoto A, Takahashi S, Asano H, Kato T (1995) Prenatal infection with Setaria marshalli (Boulenger 1921) in cattle. Vet Parasitol 56: 303-309.
Golovko V, Shchetinsky I (2005) Some more precise data on clinical and pathomorphological characteristic of bovine stariosis. XIIth International Congress, Warsaw, Poland. Animals and environment proceedings, 1: 241-243.
Islam FSH, Rahman FH, Chowdhury, SMZH (1992) Prevalence of parasites of water buffaloes in Bangladesh. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 5(4): 601-604.
Khedri J, Radfar MH, Borji H, Azizzadeh M (2014) An epidemiological survey of Setaria in the abdominal cavities of Iranian Sistani and Brahman cattle in the Southeastern of Iran. Iran J Parasitol 9(2): 249-253.
Kumar LR, Kumar MU (2016) Ultrastructural studies on Setaria digitata by scaning electron microscopy. J Parasit Dis 40(4): 1199-1203.
Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, et al. (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinfomatics Application Note 23(21): 2947-2948.
Maghsoodi N, Ladonni H, Basseri HR (2015) Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 9(1): 60-70.
Mahmoud OM, Haroun EM, Omer OH (2004) An outbreak of neurofilariosis in young goats. Vet Parasitol 120: 151-156.
Nabie R, Spotin A, Rouhani S (2017). Subconjunctival setariasis due to Setaria equina infection; a case report and a literature review. Parasitol Int 66: 930-932.
Nasirian H, Taghi Sadeghi SM, Vazirianzadeh B, Moosa-Kazemi SH (2014) New record of Aedes vittatus and Culiseta subochrea (Diptera: Culicidae) and their distribution from Shadegan Wetland, South Western Iran. J Entomol Zool Stud 2(5): 271-275.
Navidpour S, Vazirianzadeh B, Harbach R, Jahanifard E, Moravvej SA (2012) The identification of culicine mosquitoes in the Shadegan wetland in south western Iran. Int J Insect Sci 12: 105.
Patnaik MM (1989) On filarial Nematodes in Domestic animals in Orissa. Indian Vet J 66: 573-574.
Ronghang B, Roy B, 2013. Filarial infections in semi-wild cattle of Northeast India: first record of Setaria digitata (von Linstow 1906) in Bos frontalis (Lambert 1804). J Parasit Dis 39(4): 693-696.
Shoho C, and Uni SK (1977). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of some Setaria species (Filaroidea, Nematoda). Z Parasitenkd 53: 93-104.
Siddiqui AA, Sharma SP, Kumar M. 1996. Prevalence of Setaria infection in buffaloes and horses. Indian J Anim Sci 66: 243-245.
Sundar STB, D’Souza E (2015) Morphological characterization of Setaria worms collected from cattle. J Parasit Dis 39(3): 572-576.
Talu SD, Stefanut AC, Mihalica AD, Coroiu Z (2012) Subconjunctival infestation with Setaria. J Helminthol 49(2): 119-121.
Tung KC, Lai CH, Ooi HK, Yang CH, Wang JS (2003). Cerebrospinal nematodiasis with Setaria marshalli and Setaria digitata infection in cattle. J Vet Med Sci 65(9): 977-983.
Viney ME, Diaz A (2012) Phenotypic plasticity in nematodes: evolutionary and ecological significance. Worm 1: 98-106.
Watanabe Y, Yang CH, Tung KC, Ooi HK (2004) Comparison of microfilaria concentration method for Setaria digitata infection in cattle and for Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 66(5): 543-545.
Wee SH, Jang H, Joo HD, Kang YB, Lee CG (1996) Setaria marshalli infection in neonatal calves. Korean J Parasitol 34(3): 207-210.
Wijesundera WWS, Chandrasekharan NV, Karunanayake EH (1999) A sensitive polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Setaria digitata: The causative organism of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses. Vet Parasitol 81: 225-233.
World Health Organization (2007) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: annual report on lymphatic filariasis 2006. Wkly Epidemiol Rec, 82, 361-380.
Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Nagataki M, Rajapakse RPVJ, Agatsuma T (2007) Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Setaria digitata of Srilanka based on CO1 and 12SrDNA genes. Vet Parasitol 148: 161-165.