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Detection of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Poultry Feed of Balochistan Pakistan

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FA MAJEED, A AKBAR, M SHAFEE, H SADIA, S IQBAL, B PHADUNGCHOB, GI KHAN, SA KHAN
FA MAJEED, A AKBAR, M SHAFEE, H SADIA, S IQBAL, B PHADUNGCHOB, GI KHAN, SA KHAN

Abstract


Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites of fungi, commonly associated to agriculture commodities. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Claviceps genera are the most common mycotoxigenic fungi and the most important types of mycotoxin are Aflatoxins, Zearalenone, Ochratoxin, Fumonisins and Trichothecenes Mycotoxins can be carcinogenic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic and immunosuppressant. This study was conducted to examine the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feed used by the poultry farmers of Balochistan. Samples (n=100) were analyzed and found contaminated with fungi such as Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus and Fusarium genera, amongst them Aspergillus species was observed highly prevalent (89%). Aflatoxin production in culture plates were initially screened with the help of ammonia hydroxide vapor test, and subsequently analyzed with the help of AgraStrip®. The Aflatoxins (77%) and Fumonisins (92%) were found in direct examination of feed samples. Toxins presence was also confirmed with the help of ELISA using AgraQuant® kits. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used for characterization and quantification of aflatoxins. It was concluded that the feed samples were abundantly contaminated with aflatoxins and fumonisins and the fungi responsible for their production. This contaminated feed is one of the reasons for economic lossesfor poultry farmers of the region.


Keywords


Aspergillus; Aflatoxins; Fumonisin; Chromatography; ELISA

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References


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