Characterization of fowl aviadenovirus species in backyard flocks in Turkey

R Kalin
T Turan
M Ozan Atasoy
H Isidan

Fowl aviadenovirus infections show a worldwide distribution in poultry at all ages and the incidence of the disease is increasing year after year. Most of the studies have been exhibited the situation of the disease in commercial chickens especially in broilers but there is not sufficient data to estimate in backyards. Totally 389 internal organ samples were collected from 56 flocks from suspicious backyard chickens at ages between 10-35 weeks. Samples were tested by PCR method and nucleotide sequences of hexon genes were used for phylogenetic analyses and comparing with other FAdV sequences submitted to GenBank. Of the 389 samples, 23.9% were found FAdV positive and 30.4% (17/56) of the flocks sampled in the study were infected. This is the first study that was carried out in backyards and two species (D and C) and four serotypes (FAdV-8a, FAdV-3, FAdV-4, and FAdV-10) have been discovered for the first time in Turkey. To understand the epidemiology of FAdV in Turkey and to get enough information about species and serotypes further large scale national studies should be carried out to determine the severity of FAdV infections and to plan control strategies.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Abdul-Aziz TA, Al-Attar MA (1991) New syndrome in Iraqi chicks. Vet
Rec 129:272.
Anjum AD, Sabri MA, Iqbal Z (1989) Hydropericarditis syndrome in
broiler chickens in Pakistan. Vet Rec 124:247–248.
Antillón A, Lucio B (2016) Inclusion body hepatitis in Mexico. Avian Dis
Ayala AJ, Yabsley MJ, Hernandez SM (2020) A Review of Pathogen
Transmission at the Backyard Chicken–Wild Bird Interface. Front
Vet Sci 7:1–15.
Benkő M, Aoki K, Arnberg N, Davison A, Echavarría M, Hess M, Jones
M, Kaján G, Kajon A, Mittal S, Podgorski I, San Martín C, Wadell
G, Watanabe H, Harrach B (2022) ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile:
Adenoviridae 2021. J Gen Virol accepted:1–2.
Bertran K, Blanco A, Antilles N, Nofrarías M, Valle RM, Cobos À, Ramis
A, Biarnés M, Majó N (2021) A 10-year retrospective study of
inclusion body hepatitis in meat-type chickens in spain (2011–2021).
Viruses 13:1–11.
Cheng Z, Yan Y, Jing S, Li WG, Chen WW, Zhang J, Li M, Zhao S, Cao
N, Ou J, Zhao S, Wu X, Cao B, Zhang Q (2018) Comparative genomic
analysis of re-emergent human adenovirus type 55 pathogens
associated with adult severe community-acquired pneumonia reveals
conserved genomes and capsid proteins. Front Microbiol 9:1–13.
Cizmecigil UY, Umar S, Yilmaz A, Bayraktar E, Turan N, Tali B, Aydin O,
Tali HE, Yaramanoglu M, Yilmaz SG, Kolukisa A, Sadeyen JR, Iqbal
M, Yilmaz H (2020) Characterisation of fowl adenovirus (FAdV-8b)
strain concerning the geographic analysis and pathological lesions
associated with inclusion body hepatitis in broiler flocks in Turkey.
J Vet Res 64:231–237.
Edgar RC (2004) MUSCLE: Multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy
and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res 32:1792–1797.
Fitzgerald SD, Rautenschlein S, Mahsoub HM, Pierson FW, Reed WM,
Jack SW (2020) Adenovirus Infections. In: Diseases of Poultry. 14th
ed, Wiley, p 321–363
Franzo G, Prentza Z, Paparounis T, Tsiouris V, Centonze G, Legnardi
M, Catelli E, Tucciarone CM, Koutoulis K, Cecchinato M (2020)
Molecular epidemiology of fowl adenoviruses in Greece. Poult Sci
Gilchrist P (2005) Involvement of free-flying wild birds in the spread of
the viruses of avian influenza, Newcastle disease and infectious bursal
disease from poultry products to commercial poultry. Worlds Poult
Sci J 61:198–214.
Guindon S, Dufayard JF, Lefort V, Anisimova M, Hordijk W, Gascuel
O (2010) New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood
phylogenies: Assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Syst
Biol 59:307–321.
Helmboldt CF, Frazier MN (1963) Avian hepatic inclusion bodies of unknown
significance. Avian Dis 7:446–450.
Hess M (2000) Detection and differentiation of avian adenoviruses: A review.
Avian Pathol 29:195–206.
Hess M, Raue R, Prusas C (1999) Epidemiological studies on fowl adenoviruses
isolated from cases of infectious hydropericardium. Avian
Pathol 28:433–439.
Kaján GL, Kecskeméti S, Harrach B, Benko M (2013) Molecular typing
of fowl adenoviruses, isolated in Hungary recently, reveals high diversity.
Vet Microbiol 167:357–363.
Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S,
Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B,
Meintjes P, Drummond A (2012) Geneious Basic: An integrated and
extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis
of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28:1647–1649.
Khodakaram-Tafti A, Asasi K, Namazi F (2016) Clinicopathological characteristics
of acute inclusion body hepatitis outbreak in broiler chickens
in Iran. Bulg J Vet Med 19:163–168.
Kiss I, Homonnay ZG, Mató T, Bányai K, Palya V (2021) Research Note:
An overview on distribution of fowl adenoviruses. Poult Sci 100:1–5.
Li H, Wang J, Qiu L, Han Z, Liu S (2016) Fowl adenovirus species C serotype
is attributed to the emergence of hepatitis-hydropericardium
syndrome in chickens in China. Infect Genet Evol 45:230–241.
Li L, Wang J, Chen P, Zhang S, Sun J, Yuan W (2018) Pathogenicity
and molecular characterization of a fowl adenovirus 4 isolated from
chicken associated with IBH and HPS in China. BMC Vet Res 14:400.
Liu J, Shi X, Lv L, Wang K, Yang Z, Li Y, Chen H (2021) Characterization
of Co-infection With Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 and 8a. Front
Microbiol 12:1–9.
MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi JE (2017) Adenoviridae. In: Fenner’s Veterinary
Virology. 5th ed, Elsevier, p 217–227
Mase M, Nakamura K (2014) Phylogenetic analysis of fowl adenoviruses
isolated from chickens with gizzard erosion in Japan. J Vet Med Sci
McFerran JB, Smyth JA (2000) Avian adenovirus. Rev Sci Tech l’OIE
Mei C, Xian H, Blackall PJ, Hu W, Zhang X, Wang H (2020) Concurrent
infection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and fowl adenovirus in layer
chickens. Poult Sci 99:6525–6532.
Mete A, Armien AG, Rejmanek D, Mott M, Crossley BM (2021) Emergence
of fowl aviadenovirus C-4 in a backyard chicken flock in California.
J Vet Diagnostic Investig 33:806–809.
Meulemans G, Boschmans M, Van den Berg TP, Decaesstecker M (2001)
Polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction enzyme analysis
for detection and differentiation of fowl adenoviruses. Avian Pathol
Meulemans G, Couvreur B, Decaesstecker M, Boschmans M, Van Den
Berg TP (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of fowl adenoviruses. Avian
Pathol 33:164–170.
Mohamed MHA, El-Sabagh IM, Abdelaziz AM, Al-Ali AM, Alramadan
M, Lebdah MA, Ibrahim AM, Al-Ankari ARS (2018) Molecular characterization
of fowl aviadenoviruses species D and E associated with
inclusion body hepatitis in chickens and falcons indicates possible
cross-species transmission. Avian Pathol 47:384–390.
Muzaffar S Bin, Takekawa JY (2010) Rice Production Systems and Avian
Influenza: Interactions between Mixed-Farming Systems, Poultry and
Wild Birds. Waterbirds 33:219.
Niczyporuk JS (2018) Adenoviruses and Their Diversity in Poultry. In:
Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science. InTech,
p 137–144
Okuda Y, Ono M, Shibata I, Sato S (2004) Pathogenicity of serotype 8
fowl adenovirus isolated from gizzard erosions of slaughtered broiler
chickens. J Vet Med Sci 66:1561–1566.
Okuda Y, Ono M, Shibata I, Sato S, Akashi H (2006) Comparison of the
polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
pattern of the fiber gene and pathogenicity of serotype-1 fowl adenovirus
isolates from gizzard erosions and from feces of clinically
healthy chickens in Japan. J Vet Diagnostic Investig 18:162–167.
Özdemir D (2020) The structural characteristics, management, and challenges
of backyard poultry farming in residential areas of Turkey.
Animals 10:1–12.
Pan Q, Yang Y, Shi Z, Liu L, Gao Y, Qi X, Liu C, Zhang Y, Cui H, Wang
X (2017) Different dynamic distribution in chickens and ducks of the
hypervirulent, novel genotype fowl adenovirus serotype 4 recently
emerged in China. Front Microbiol 8:1–10.
Pizzuto MS, de Battisti C, Marciano S, Capua I, Cattoli G (2010) Pyrosequencing
analysis for a rapid classification of fowl adenovirus
species. Avian Pathol 39:391–398.
Reddy VS, Nemerow GR (2014) Structures and organization of adenovirus
cement proteins provide insights into the role of capsid maturation
in virus entry and infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:11715–
Şahindokuyucu İ, Çöven F, Kılıç H, Yılmaz Ö, Kars M, Yazıcıoğlu Ö,
Ertunç E, Yazıcı Z (2020) First report of fowl aviadenovirus serotypes
FAdV-8b and FAdV-11 associated with inclusion body hepatitis in
commercial broiler and broiler-breeder flocks in Turkey. Arch Virol
Sayim Y, Akman A, Girgin H (1988) Ankara Bölgesi Kümes Hayvanlarında
Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), Egg-Drop Syndrom-76 (EDS-76),
Avian Encephalomyelitis (AE) ve Adenovirus Enfeksiyonlarının Epizootiolojik
Araştırılması ve. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyoloji Derg 76:83–94.
Schachner A, Gonzalez G, Endler L, Ito K, Hess M (2019) Fowl Adenovirus
(FAdV) recombination with intertypic crossovers in genomes
of FAdV-D and FAdV-E, displaying hybrid serological phenotypes.
Viruses 11:1–23.
Schachner A, Matos M, Grafl B, Hess M (2018) Fowl adenovirus-induced
diseases and strategies for their control–a review on the current global
situation. Avian Pathol 47:111–126.
Stecher G, Tamura K, Kumar S (2020) Molecular evolutionary genetics
analysis (MEGA) for macOS. Mol Biol Evol 37:1237–1239.
Tamura K, Nei M (1993) Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions
in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and
chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol 10:512–526.
Toro H, Gonzalez C, Cerda L, Hess M, Reyes E, Geisse C (2000) Chicken
anemia virus and fowl adenoviruses: Association to induce the inclusion
body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome. Avian Dis 44:51–58.
Vera-Hernández PF, Morales-Garzón A, Cortés-Espinosa D V., Galiote-
Flores A, García-Barrera LJ, Rodríguez-Galindo ET, Toscano-
Contreras A, Lucio-Decanini E, Absalón AE (2016) Clinicopathological
characterization and genomic sequence differences
observed in a highly virulent fowl Aviadenovirus serotype 4. Avian
Pathol 45:73–81.
Ye J, Liang G, Zhang J, Wang W, Song N, Wang P, Zheng W, Xie Q, Shao
H, Wan Z, Wang C, Chen H, Gao W, Qin A (2016) Outbreaks of serotype
fowl adenovirus with novel genotype, China. Emerg Microbes
Infect 5:1–12.
Zsák L, Kisary J (1984) Grouping of Fowl Adenoviruses Based upon the.
Intervirology 22:110–114.