| More


Views: 773 Downloads: 498
P. Koutsovitis, C. Kanellopoulos, S. Passa, K. Foni, E. Tsapara, G. Oikonomou, N. Xirokostas, Κ. Vallianatou, Ε. Mouxiou
P. Koutsovitis, C. Kanellopoulos, S. Passa, K. Foni, E. Tsapara, G. Oikonomou, N. Xirokostas, Κ. Vallianatou, Ε. Mouxiou


The Lapis Lacedaemonius (krokeatis lithos) is a well-known meta-volcanic rock of great historical importance. Petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data, as well as geochemical analysis of selected samples, reveal that these rocks are porphyritic metabasaltic rocks which have been significantly affected by saussuritization and also by restricted silicification processes. They represent subduction related calc-alkaline volcanic rocks which also appear in the adjacent Hellenic Triassic volcanic outcrops, and appear to be associated with the rift/drift phase within the Pindos oceanic realm. The unique features of the Lapis Lacedaemonius, when compared to geochemically similar volcanic rock outcrops, are mainly attributed to their distinct porphyritic textures, predominantly with microlithically textured groundmass along with the coarse grained plagioclase, and to saussuritization processes. The Lapis Lacedaemonius seems to have been formed in a sub-volcanic system closely associated with epidosites, suggesting that metasomatism occurred within hydrothermal upflow zones.


Lapis Lacedaemonius; Krokeatis lithos; Saussuritization; Subduction; Triassic volcanism

Full Text:



Banerjee, N.R., Gillis, K.M. and Muehlenbachs, K., 2000. Discovery of epidosites in a modern

oceanic setting, the Tonga forearc, Geology, 28(2), 151-154.

Barrett, TJ. and Maclean, WH., 1999. Volcanic sequences, lithogeochemistry, and hydrothermal

alteration in some bimodal volcanic-associated massive sulfide systems. In: Barrie, C.T. and

Hannington, M.D., eds., Volcanic-Associated Massive Sulfide Systems: Processes and

Examples in Modern and Ancient Settings, Reviews in Economic Geology, 8, 101-131.

Gerolymatos, I., 1994. Metamorphose und Tektonik der Phyllit- Quartzit-Serie und der Tyros

Formation auf dem Peloponnes und Kythira, Berliner Geowiss. Abh., 164-161.

Gillis, K.M., 2002. Root-zones of a fossil oceanic hydrothermal system exposed in the Troodos

Ophiolite, The Journal of Geology, 110, 57-74.

Kamber, BS. and Collerson, KD., 2000. Zr/Nb Systematics of Ocean Island Basalts Reassessed-the

Case for Binary Mixing, Journal of Petrology, 41(7), 1007-1021.

Kokkorou-Alevra, G., Poupaki, I., Efstathopoulos, A. and Hatzikonstantinou, A., 2014. Corpus of

Ancient Greek Quarries. University of Athens, 350 pp. (In Greek).

Koutsovitis, P., Magganas, A. and Katerinopoulos, A., 2009. Calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in

mélange formations from the South Othris region, Greece: petrogenetic and geo-tectonic

implications, Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Petrology, 47, 79-95.

Koutsovitis, P., Magganas, A. and Ntaflos, T., 2012. Rift and intra-oceanic subduction signatures in

the Western Tethys during the Triassic: the case of ultramafic lavas as part of an unusual

ultramafic-mafic-felsic suite in Othris, Greece, Lithos, 144-145,177-193.

Magganas, A. and Koutsovitis, P., 2015. Composition, Melting and Evolution of the Upper Mantle

beneath the Jurassic Pindos Ocean Inferred by Ophiolitic Ultramafic Rocks in East Othris,

Greece, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 1-23.

Magganas, A., Kyriakopoulos, K. and Lekkas, E., 1997. Early Alpine Rift Volcanism in Continental

Greece: the Case of Glykomilia Area (Koziakas Mountain), Chemie der Erde, 57, 243-255.

McCulloch, M.T. and Gamble, A.J., 1991. Geochemical and geodynamical constraints on

subduction zone magmatism, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 102, 358-374.

Melson, W.G., Vallier, T.L., Wright, T.L., Bryerly, G. and Nelson, J., 1976. Chemical diversity of

abyssal volcanic glass erupted along the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean seafloor

spreading centers. In: Sutton, G., Manghari, M.H. and Moberly, R., eds., The geophysics of

the Pacific Ocean Basin and its margins, Geophysical Monograph, 12, 351-367.

Panagos, A., Pe, G.G., Piper, D.J.W. and Kotopouli, C.N., 1979. Age and stratigraphic subdivision of the

phyllite series, Krokee region, Peloponnese, Greece, Neu. Jb. Geol.-Paläont., Mh., 3, 181-190.

Pearce, J.A., 1996. A users guide to basalt discrimination diagrams. In: Wyman, D.A., ed., Trace

Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration,

Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, 12, 79-113.

Pearce, J.A., 2008. Geochemical fingerprinting of oceanic basalts with applications to ophiolite

classification and the search for Archean oceanic crust, Lithos, 100, 14-48.

Pearce, J.A. and Parkinson, I.J., 1993. Trace element models for mantle melting: application to

volcanic arc petrogenesis. In: Prichard, H.M., Alabaster, T., Harris, N.B.W. and Neary, C.R.,

eds., Magmatic Processes and Plate Tectonics, Geological Society, London, Special

Publications, 76, 373-403.

Pearce, JA. and Peate, D.W., 1995. Tectonic Implications of the Composition of Volcanic ARC

Magmas, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 23, 251-285.

Pe-Piper, G., 1982. Geochemistry, tectonic setting and metamorphism of the mid-Triassic volcanic

rocks of Greece, Tectonophysics, 85, 253-272.

Pe-Piper, G., Panagos, A.G., Piper, D.J.W. and Kotopouli, C.N., 1982. The (?) mid Triassic volcanic

rocks of Lakonia, Greece, Geological Magazine, 119, 77-85.

Pe-Piper, G. and Piper, D.J.W., 1991. Early Mesozoic oceanic subduction- related volcanic rocks,

Pindos Basin, Greece, Tectonophysics, 192, 273-292.

Pe-Piper, G. and Piper, D.J.W., 2002. The Igneous Rocks of Greece, Borntraeger, Stuttgart, 1-645.

Pe-Piper, G., Tsikouras, B. and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2004. Evolution of boninites and island-arc

tholeiites in the Pindos Ophiolite, Greece, Geol Magazine, 141, 455-469.

Plank, T., 2005. Constraints from thorium/lanthanum on sediment recycling at subduction zones and

the evolution of the continents, Journal of Petrology, 46, 921-944.

Pomonis, P., Tsikouras, Β. and Hatzipanagiotou, Κ., 2004. Comparative geochemical study of the

Triassic trachyandesites of Glykomilia and alkalibasalts from the Koziakas ophiolite mélange

(W. Thessaly): implications for their origin, 10th G.S.G. Congress 2004, Bulletin of the

Geological Society of Greece, 36, 587-596.

Saunders, A.D., Norry, M.J. and Tarney, J., 1991. Fluid influence on the trace element compositions of

subduction zone magmas, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A335, 377-392.

Sharp, I.R. and Robertson, A.H.F., 2006. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the western margin of

the Mesozoic Vardar Ocean: evidence from the Pelagonian and Almopias zones, northern

Greece, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 260, 373-412.

Sinton, J.M., Wilson, D.S., Christie, D.M., Hey, R.N. and Delaney, J.R., 1983. Petrologic

consequences of rift propagation on oceanic spreading ridges, Earth and Planetary Science

Letters, 62, 193-207.

Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts:

implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders, A.D. and Norry, M.J., eds.,

Magmatism in the Ocean Basins, Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Publ., 42, 313-345.

Thiebault, F., 1982. Evolution geodynamique des Hellenides externs en Peloponnese meridional

(Greece), Soc. Geol. Nord, 6, 1-574.

Thirlwall, M.F., Upton, B.G.J. and Jenkins, C., 1994. Interaction between continental lithosphere

and the Iceland plume-Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Tertiary basalts, NE Greenland,

Journal of Petrology, 35, 839-879.

Vermeesch, P., 2006. Tectonic discrimi-nation diagrams revisited, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7.

Wilson, N., 2013. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Hoboken, Taylor and Francis, 1-800.

Winchester, J.A. and Floyd, P.A., 1977. Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and

their differentiation products using immobile elements, Chemical Geology, 20, 325-343.

Zezza, U. and Lazzarini, L., 2002. Krokeatis Lithos (Lapis Lacedaemonius): source, history of use,

scientific characterization'. In: Lazzarini, L., ed., Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone,



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 P. Koutsovitis, C. Kanellopoulos, S. Passa, K. Foni, E. Tsapara, G. Oikonomou, N. Xirokostas, Κ. Vallianatou, Ε. Mouxiou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.