| More

Estimation of rockfall hazard using a GIS-based three-dimensional rockfall simulation model

Views: 76 Downloads: 67
S. Charalambous, M. Sakellariou
S. Charalambous, M. Sakellariou


Rockfall is a very common geomorphological process, yet a major hazard mainly in mountainous areas or along man-made slopes, potentially threatening lives, settlements, equipment, facilities and road infrastructure. In Greece, rockfalls are considered to be one of the most common forms of landslide as well as the most common failure mode likely to be triggered by a seismic event. Rockfall hazard assessment is requisite for both safety purposes (countermeasure design), as well as for land planning purposes. In this paper, a new three-dimensional rockfall simulation model, developed in GIS environment, is proposed as a tool for assessing rockfall hazard for a local- or even a regional-scale area. The application provides stochastic analysis, three-dimensional visualization and animation of rockfalls, by taking advantage of the capabilities offered by GIS. By means of case studies we evaluate the simulation model as a tool assisting spatial analysis and planning, which can be used in decision-making and design concerning road infrastructures, or even a large technical work, such as a dam.


Landslides; Stochastic modelling; Visualization

Full Text:



Agliardi, F., and Crosta, G.Β., 2003. High resolution three-dimensional numerical modelling of rock falls, Int. Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Science, 40(4), 455^471.

Azzoni, Α., La Barbera, G., and Zaninetti, Α., 1995. Analysis and prediction of rock falls using a mathematical model, Int. Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Science, Geomech Abstr., 32(7), 709-24.

Badger, T.C., and Lowell, S., 1992. Rockfall Control Washington State. In Rockfall Predictionand Control and Landslide Case Histories, Transportation Research Record, National Research Council, Washington, No 1342, 14-19.

Broili, L., 1973. In situ tests for the study of rockfall, Geologia Applicata e Idrogeologia, 8 (1), 105-111. (in Italian)

Burrough, P.A., and McDonnel, R., 1998. Principles of Geographical Information Systems, University Press, Oxford.

Charalambous, S., 2006, Programming the wedge failure mode and rock fall in a GIS environment, Master Thesis, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, (in Greek)

Chau, K.T., Wong, R.H.C., and Wu, J.J., 2002. Coefficient of restitution and rotational motions of rockfall impacts, Int. Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Science, 39, 69-77.

Crosta, G.Β., and Agliardi, F., 2004. Parametric evaluation of 3D dispersion of rockfall trajectories, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 4, 583-598.

Crosta, G.B., and Locatelli, C, 1999. Approccio alla valutazione del rischio da frane per crollo. In Studi geografici e geologici in onore di Severino Belloni, Genova: Glauco Brigarti, 259- 86pp. (in Italian).

Evans, S.G., and Hungr, O., 1993. The assessment of rockfall hazard at the base of talus slopes", Can. Geotech. J., 30, 620-636.

Ferentinou, M., 2004. Landslide hazard assessment using artificial neural networks in a Geographical Information System, PhD Thesis, National Technical University of Athens, (in Greek)

Guzzetti, F., Crosta, G.B., Detti, R., and Agliardi, F., 2002. STONE: a computer program for the three- dimensional simulation of rockfalls, Computers and Geosciences, 28 (9), 1081-1095.

Hoek, E., 1998. Rock Engineering - The application of Modern Techniques to Underground Design, Notes from a short course by Dr Evert Hoek, Kochen & Cella, Brazil, (also available from http:www.rocscience.com)

Jones, C.L., Higgins, J.D., and Andrew, R.D., 2000. Colorado Rock fall Simulation Program Version 4.0, Colorado Department of Transportation, Colorado Geological Survey, 127pp.

Kefalas, G., 2006. Rock fall Hazard Estimation in GIS Environment - Application in North road axis of Crete, Diploma Thesis, National Technical University, Athens, (in Greek)

Koukis, G., 1988, Slope deformation phenomena related to engineering geological conditions in Greece, Proc. of 5th Int. Symp. on Landslides, 1187-1192.

Pfeiffer, T., and Bowen, T., 1989. Computer simulation of rock falls", Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geol, 26(1), 135-46.

Ritchie, A.M., 1963. Evaluation of rock fall, its control, HRB, Highway Research Record, 17, 13-28.

Rochet, L., 1987. Application des modèles numériques de propagation a l'étude des eboulements rocheux, Bulletin des Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées, 150/151, 84-95. (in French)

Sakellariou, M., and Ferentinou, M., 2001. GIS-based Estimation of Slope Stability, Natural Hazards Review (ASCE), 2(1), 12-21

Sakellariou, M., Ferentinou, M., and Charalambous, S., 2006. An Integrated GIS Tool for Seismic Induced Landslide Hazard Mapping, Proc. of Γ' European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Geneva, 349pp.

Varnes, D.J., 1978. Slope movement Types and Processes, In Special Report 176: Landslides: Analysis and Control (R.L. Schuster and R.. Kriezek), TRB, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 11-33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 S. Charalambous, M. Sakellariou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.