| More

Environmental Issues of European Cargo Ports

Views: 184 Downloads: 81
Christos Bentsos
Christos Bentsos

Περίληψη


Sea ports and the shipping industry are crucial elements of the international supply chain. Over the last years there has been a growing awareness on the environmental impact of port operations and development. The development of port industry can have a substantial environmental impact. Sustainability is expressed in economic, environmental, and social dimension. The major impacts are on air pollution and especially greenhouse gas emission, the water pollution and the health effects. International policy instruments and governments are crucial factors defining the actions of ports, which are expected to enhance environmental management and reduce the harm of shipping activities. This paper focuses on the environmental dimension and the attempts to reduce the GHG emissions in line with the Paris Agreement and the 2030 UN SDGs. The attention of European Union regulatory environmental framework is laid in the reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels, the framework for port reception facilities for the delivery of waste from ships, and the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure. The European Green Deal aims to a 90% reduction in the transport emissions by 2050.


Λέξεις κλειδιά


Ports; Sustainability; Environmental impact of port activity; Green Deal

Πλήρες Κείμενο:

PDF (English)

Αναφορές


Adams, M., Quinonez, P., Pallis, A. & Wakeman, T. (2009). Environmental issues in port competitiviness. Dahlhausie University. Atlantic Gateway Initiative. Centre for International Trade and Transportation. Wokring Paper 7.

Alexandropoulou, V., Koundouri, P., Papadaki, L. & Kontaxaki, K. (2021). New Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Ports: The Deep Demonstration in Maritime Hubs Project. In: P. Koundouri (ed.), The Ocean of Tomorrow (Vol. 57). Springer, Cham, pp. 173-197.

Aregall, M., Bergqvist, R. & Monios, J. (2018, March). A global review of the hinterland dimension of green port strategies. Transportation Research Part D, Transport and Environment, 59: 23-34.

Bailey, D. & Solomon, G. (2004). Pollution prevention at ports: Clearing the air. Environmental Impact Assessment Review (24): 749–774.

Bergqvist, R. & Monios, J. (2019). Green Ports in Theory and Practice. In: R. Bergqvist, & J. Monios (eds.), Green Ports: Inland and Seaside Sustainable Transportation Strategies. Cambridge: Elsevier, pp. 1-17

Di Vaio, A. & Varriale, L. (2018). Management Innovation for Environmental Sustainability in Seaports: Managerial Accounting Instruments and Training for Competitive Green Ports beyond the Regulations. Sustainability, 10(3): 783.

European Sea Ports Organisation. (2020). Environmental Report, EcoPortsinSights 2020.

Lam, J. S. & Notteboom, T. (2014). The Greening of Ports: A Comparison of Port Management Tools Used by Leading Ports in Asia and Europe. Transport Reviews, 34(2): 169-189.

Lashof, D. & Ahuja, D. (1990). Relative contributions of greenhouse gas emissions to global warming. Nature (344): 529–531.

Laxe, F., Bermúdez, F., Palmero, F. & Novo-Corti, I. (2017). Assessment of port sustainability through synthetic indexes. Application to the Spanish case. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 119(1): 220-225.

Lee, C. & Lam, J. (2012). Managing reverse logistics to enhance sustainability of industrial marketing. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(4): 589-598.

Notteboom, T., Verhoeven, P. & Fontanet, M. (2012). Current practices in European ports on the awarding of seaport terminals to private operators: Towards an industry good practice guide. Policy & Management 39, (1): 107–123.

Serrano, B., González-Cancelas, N., Soler-Flores, F. & Camarero-Orive, A. (2018). Classification and prediction of port variables using Bayesian Networks. Transport Policy, 67: 57-66.

Sharma, E. & Das, S. (2020). Measuring impact of Indian ports on environment and effectiveness of remedial measures towards environmental pollution. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM), 25(3): 356-380.

Sislian, L., Jaegler, A. & Cariou, P. (2016). A literature review on port sustainability and ocean's carrier network problem. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 19: 19-26.

UNCTAD (2020). Review of Maritime Transport. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Verhoeven, P. (2020). World Ports Sustainability Report. Worlds ports Sustainability Program.

Villalba, G. & Gemechu, E. (2011). Estimating GHG emissions of marine ports — the case of Barcelona. Energy Policy 39: 1363–1368.

Winnes, H., Styhre, L. & Fridell, E. (2015). Reducing GHG emissions from ships in port areas. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 17: 73-82.

WPCI (2017). ESI Steadily Going Stronger. World Port Climate Initiative.

Yap, W. Y., Lam, J. S. & Cullinane, K. (2011). A theoretical framework for the evaluation of competition. Singapore Economic Review, 56 (4): 535–559.