Covid-19 Impact on Greek Tourism Sector and the Implemented Policies

Published: Δεκ 29, 2022
tourism covid-19 policies pandemic tourism flows
Konstantina Briola
Helen Briola

Tourism is one of the most important economic activities internationally and many countries (e.g. Portugal, Spain, Greece) are highly dependent on the tourism sector. Tourism has always been considered a priority sector in Greece and significant capital investments have been made over the years for its development. The pandemic has driven the global economy into a severe recession and many industries have been significantly affected by the measures taken, including the tourism industry. In response to this crisis, the Greek government, aiming to further develop the tourism sector and restore tourist flows to normal levels, used a series of measures. In this paper, we study the effects of the implemented policies on tourism during the pandemic. Our results indicate that the policies had a direct impact on the increase in tourism flows. 

Article Details
  • Section
  • Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Allaberganov, A., Preko, A. and Mohammed, I. (2021). Government commitment to tourism and hospitality sector during COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Critiques, 2 (2): 153-169.
Dahiru, Τ. (2008). P – VALUE, A TRUE TEST OF STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE? A CAUTIONARY NOTE. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 6(1): 21–26.
Dupeyras, A., Haxton, P. & Stacey, J. (2020). The Covid-19 crisis and tourism: Response and recovery measures to support the tourism sector in OECD countries. G20 Insights, (Policy Brief). Available at: (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2022). Data on country response measures to COVID-19. (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Fong, L.H.N., Law, R. and Ye, B.H. (2020). Outlook of tourism recovery amid an epidemic: importance of outbreak control by the government. Annals of Tourism Research, 86.
Government Gazette 5046/ Β´/14.11.2020. (2020). Temporary ban on public outdoor gatherings [in Greek] (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Government Gazette 4566Β΄/15.10.2020. (2020). Distance rules and other protection measures throughout the Territory, to limit the spread of the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus in Regional Units based on the epidemiological burden [in Greek] (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Government Gazette 1585/Β´/25.04.2020. (2020). Temporary ban on the movement of citizens [in Greek] (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Government Gazette 1780/Β´/10.05.2020. (2020).Staying Safe -Mandatory use of face covering masks [in Greek] (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Government Gazette 3401/Β´/13-08-2020. Imposition of preventive controls at points of entry into the Country through air connections with Bulgaria, Romania, the United Arab Emirates, Malta, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Belgium, Spain, the Netherlands, Albania, North Macedonia and Israel [in Greek] (Accessed: 01/11/2022).
Government Gazette 3429/Β´/14-08-2020. (2020). Limit of 50 people for all public and social events [in Greek] (Accessed: 02/11/2022).
Government Gazette 4675/Β´/09-10-2021. (2021). Granting process for "Freedom Pass/Data [in Greek] (Accessed: 02/11/2022).
INSETE (2021a). H συμβολή του Τουρισμού στην ελληνική οικονομία το 2020 (The contribution of tourism to the Greek Economy) | Ikkos, A. & Koutsos, S. (Accessed: 07/11/2022).
INSETE. (2020a). Key Figures of Greek Tourism (Accessed: 07/11/2022).
Karoulia, S.,Gaki, E, Kostopoulou, S. & Lagos, D. (2016). Greek tourism sector and signs of resilience, 56th Congress of the European Regional Science Association. Cities & Regions: Smart, Sustainable, Inclusive?, 23-26 August 2016, Vienna, Austria, European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Louvain-la-Neuve.
Katemliadis, I. & Papatheodorou, A. (2021). The Importance of Tourism for the Greek Economy: Traits and Development. In: Vlachos, V., Bitzenis, A. and Sergi, B.S. (Ed.), Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Greece (Entrepreneurship and Global Economic Growth). Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, 263-279.
Lolos, S., Palaios, P. & Papapetrou E. (2021). The Greek tourism-led growth revisited: insights and prospects. Bank of Greece, Economic Analysis and Research Department – Special Studies Division.
Ministry of Tourism (2021). Draft Sectoral Tourism Development Program 2021-2025 (Accessed: 06/11/2022).
Nikoli, G. and Lazakidou, A. (2019). The Contribution of Tourism Industry to the Economy: Case of the Greek Tourism Sector. Advances in Management & Applied Economics, 9 (6): 21-28.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD. (2020). Tourism Policy Responses to the coronavirus (COVID-19) (Accessed: 23/10/2022).
Oxford Economics (2012).The comparative economic impact of travel and tourism. London: Oxford Economics and World Travel & Tourism Council (Accessed: 23/10/2022).
Sotiriadis, M. & Varvaressos, S. (2015). A strategic analysis of Greek tourism: competitive position, issues and lessons. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 4 (2).
Statista Research Department (2022). Travel and tourism's total contribution to GDP in Greece 2019-2021. (Accessed: 10/11/2022).
Soukiazis, E. and Proença, S. (2008). Touris as an alternative source of regional growth in Portugal: a pane data analysis at NUTS II and III levels. Portuguese Economic Journal, 7 (1): 43-61.
Shao, Y., Hu, Z., Luo, M., Huo, T. and Zhao, Q. (2020). What is the policy focus for tourism recovery after the outbreak of COVID-19? A co-word analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 24 (7): 1-6.
Taylor, J. M. G. (1987). Kendall's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients in the Presence of a Blocking Variable. Biometrics, 43 (2): 409-416.
The World Bank Group (2020). The Global Economic Outlook During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Changed World (Accessed: 26/10/2022).
The World Travel & Tourism Council - .WTTC. (2020). Travel & Tourism - Global Economic Impact & Trends 2020 (Accessed: 26/10/2022).
World Economic Forum (2022). Travel & Tourism Development Index 2021. Rebuilding for a Sustainable and Resilient Future. (Accessed: 27/10/2022).
World Health Organization (2020). WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020 (Accessed: 03/11/2022).
World Tourism Organization (26/09/2022). International tourism returns to 60% of pre-pandemic levels in January-July 2022 (Accessed: 27/10/2022).
World Tourism Organization (28/07/2020). Impact of COVID-19 on global tourism made clear as UNWTO counts the cost of standstill (Accessed: 27/10/2022).
World Tourism Organization (28/01/2021). 2020: worst year in tourism history with one billion fewer international arrivals (Accessed: 27/10/2022).

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)