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Toward the widespread application of low-cost technologies in coastal ocean observing (Internet of Things for the Ocean)

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MARCO MARCELLI (http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2619-8521), VIVIANA PIERMATTEI (http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9000-9070), RICCARDO GERIN (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9788-0803), FABIO BRUNETTI, ERMANNO PIETROSEMOLI, SAM ADDO, LOBDA BOUDAYA, RICHARD COLEMAN (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9731-7498), OLULUNMI AYOOLA NUBI, RICK JOJANNES, SUBRATA SARKER (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9672-1889), ZACHARIE SOHOU (http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3314-3481), MARCO ZENNARO, KAREN WHILTSHIRE, ALESSANDRO CRISE (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5183-3921)
MARCO MARCELLI, VIVIANA PIERMATTEI, RICCARDO GERIN, FABIO BRUNETTI, ERMANNO PIETROSEMOLI, SAM ADDO, LOBDA BOUDAYA, RICHARD COLEMAN, OLULUNMI AYOOLA NUBI, RICK JOJANNES, SUBRATA SARKER, ZACHARIE SOHOU, MARCO ZENNARO, KAREN WHILTSHIRE, ALESSANDRO CRISE

Abstract


The ability to access user-friendly, low-cost instrumentation remains a limiting factor in coastal ocean observing. The majority of currently available marine observation equipment is difficult to deploy, costly to operate, and requires specific technical skills. Moreover, a harmonized observation program for the world’s coastal waters has not yet been established despite the efforts of the global ocean organizations. Global observational systems are mainly focused on open ocean waters and do not include coastal and shelf areas, where models and satellites require large data sets for their calibration and validation. Fortunately, recent technological advances have created opportunities to improve sensors, platforms, and communications that will enable a step-change in coastal ocean observing, which will be driven by a decreasing cost of the components, the availability of cheap housing, low-cost controller/data loggers based on embedded systems, and low/no subscription costs for LPWAN communication systems. Considering the above necessities and opportunities, POGO’s OpenMODs project identified a series of general needs/requirements to be met in an Open science development framework. In order to satisfy monitoring and research necessities, the sensors to be implemented must be easily interfaced with the data acquisition and transmission system, as well as compliant with accuracy and stability requirements. Here we propose an approach to co-design a cost-effective observing modular instrument architecture based on available low-cost measurement and data transmission technologies, able to be mounted/operated on various platforms. This instrument can fit the needs of a large community that includes scientific research (including those in developing countries), non-scientific stakeholders, and educators.


Keywords


internet of things; low-cost technologies; ocean observations

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