Βοηθήστε μας να κάνουμε καλύτερη την υπηρεσία eJournals. Αν έχετε χρησιμοποιήσει την υπηρεσία eJournals στο παρελθόν και έχετε κάποια εμπειρία ως προς τη χρήση της, παρακαλούμε αφιερώστε ένα λεπτό και συμπληρώστε το σύντομο ερωτηματολόγιο!

Psychosociology of Addiction and Rehabilitation: Construction of a Psychometric Instrument for screening problem and pathological gambling


Published: Jun 16, 2020
Keywords:
Pathological Gambling Behavior Gambling Disorders Pathological Gamblers Problem Gamblers Biological Factors Psychological Factors Sociological Factors
Aikaterini Charonitaki
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8819-5361
Irina Zhuravliova
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5673-2783
Konstantinos Koskinas
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8193-2269
Abstract

Gambling and gambling disorders have received solicitous attention by clinicians and researchers during the past three decades. The majority of existing psychometric instruments relevant to problem gambling are based on the clinical evaluation of symptomatology. The aim of this study was the development and evaluation of a self report instrument that comprehends elements based on three main factors: a. psychological, b. biological, c. sociological. In the first phase of this research, structured and semi-structured interview was conducted in 16 individuals. In the second phase, a pilot inventory that consisted of 227 items, was administered in 91 individuals of general population. In the last phase of this study participated 200 individuals from the community and completed the short form of the inventory that included 148 items. Factor analysis was conducted in all items and 115 statistically significant questions were derived which comprise the final form. The present instrument, which has demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, provides a first step in self evaluation of problem and pathological gambling in Greece and aims at effective counseling in order to reduce or even prevent addictive gambling behaviors.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Articles
Downloads
Download data is not yet available.
References
Achab, S., Chatton, A., Khan, R., Thorens, G., Penzenstadler, L. E., Zullino, D. F. & Khazaal, Y. (2014). Early Detection of Pathological Gambling: Betting on GPs’ Beliefs and Attitudes. BioMed Research International, 2014: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/360585
Afifi, T. O., Brownridge, D. A., MacMilan, H. & Sareen, J., (2010). The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample. Journal of psychiatric research, 44(5): 331-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.07.010
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.
Armitage, P. & Berry, G. (1994). Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Oxford: Blackwell.
Beck, A. T. & Beamesderfer, A. (1974). Assessment of depression: the depression inventory. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, 7: 151 – 169. https://doi.org/10.1159/000395074
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107 (2): 238 – 246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238
Ben-Tovim, D. I., Esterman, A., Tolchard, B. & Battersby M. (2001). The Victorian Gambling Screen. Research Project. State of Victoria: Gambling Research Panel, Melbourne. [Google Scholar]
Bergen, A. E., Newby-Clark, I. R. & Brown, A. (2012). Low Trait Self-Control in Problem Gamblers: Evidence from Self-Report and Behavioral Measures. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28:637–648. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-011-9274-9
Bergh, C., Eklund, T., Soedersten, P., & Nordin, C. (1997). Altered dopamine function in pathological gambling. Psychological Medicine, 27 (2): 473–475. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291796003789
Black, D. W., Monahan, P. O., Temkit, M. & Shaw, M. (2006). A family study of pathological gambling. Psychiatry Research, 141: 295-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2005.12.005
Blanco, C., Ibanez, A., Saiz Ruiz, J., Blanco-Jerez, C., & Nunes, E. V. (2000). Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of pathological gambling. CNS Drugs, 13 (6): 397–407. https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200013060-00002
Blaszczynski A. P. (2005). Conceptual and methodological issues in treatment outcome research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21: 5‑11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-004-1916-8
Blaszczynski, A.P. & McConaghy, N. (1989). The medical model of pathological gambling: Current shortcomings. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5: 42-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01022136
Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97: 487−499. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00015.x
Blaszczynski, A., & Steel, Z. (1998). Personality disorders among pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14: 51-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023098525869
Blaszczynski, A., Steel, Z., & McConaghy, N. (1997). Impulsivity in pathological gambling: the antisocial impulsivist. Addiction, 92 (1): 75–87. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.93689511.x
Brand, M., Kalbe, E., Labudda, K., Fujiwara, E., Kessler, J., Markowitsch, H.J. (2005) Decision-making impairments in patients with pathological gambling. Psychiatry Res, 133: 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2004.10.003
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods and Research, 21(2): 230 – 258. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005
Bullock, S. A., & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Pathological gambling: neuropsychopharmacology and treatment. Current Psychopharmacology, 1: 67–85. https://doi.org/ 10.2174/2211556011201010067.
Byrne, B. M. (2000). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
Cardinal, R. N. (2006). Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Neural Networks, 19: 1277–1301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2006.03.004
Carlton, P. L., & Manowitz, P. (1994). Factors determining the severity of pathological gambling in males. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10 (2): 147–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02109937
Caselli, G., & Spada, M. M. (2011). The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties. Addictive Behaviors, 36: 1061–1070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.06.013
Caselli, G., Soliani, M., & Spada, M. M. (2013). The effect of desire thinking on craving: An experimental investigation. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27: 301–306. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027981
Castellani, B., & Rugle, L. (1995). A comparison of pathological gamblers to alcoholics and cocaine misusers on impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and craving. International Journal of the Addictions, 30(3): 275–289. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826089509048726
Chase, H.W. & Clark, L. (2010). Gambling severity predicts midbrain response to near-miss outcomes. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 6180–6187. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5758-09.2010
Clark, L. A. & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7: 309-319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2008). Research methods in education (6th ed.). London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Comings, D. E., Gade-Andavolu, R., Gonzales, N., et al. (2001) The addictive effect of neurotransmitter genes in pathological gambling. Clinical Genetics; 60: 107–16. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0004.2001.600204.x
Comrey, A. L. (1973). A first course in factor analysis. New York: Academic Press.
Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.
Council, N.R. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Cortina, J. M. (1993). What Is Coefficient Alpha? An Examination of Theory and Applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1): 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98
Coventry, K. R., & Brown, R. I. F. (1993). Sensation-seeking, gambling and gambling addictions. Addictions, 88: 541–554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02061.x
Cunningham-Williams, R. M., Cottler, L. B., Compton III, W. M., Spitznagel, E. L. (1998). Taking chances: Problem gamblers and mental health disorders - Results from the St. Louis epidemiologic catchment area study American Journal of Public Health, 88 (7): 1093-1095. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.7.1093
Dackis, C. & O’Brien, C. (2005). Neurobiology of addiction: treatment and public policy ramifications. Nature Neuroscience, 8: 1431-1436. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1105-1431
de Ruiter, M. B., Veltman, D. J., Goudriaan, A. E., Oosterlaan, J., Sjoerds, Z., & van den Brink, W. (2009). Response preservation and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34: 1027-1038. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.175
DeCaria, C. M., Begaz, T., & Hollander, E. (1998). Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Function in Pathological Gambling. CNS Spectrum, 3(6):38–45. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900006003
DeCaria, C. M., Hollander, E., Grossman, R., Wong, C. M., Mosovich, S. A., & Cherkasky, S. (1996). Diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of pathological gamblers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 (8): 80–84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8698687
Delfabbro, P., & Thrupp, L. (2003). The social determinants of youth gambling in South Australian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 26: 313–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971(03)00013-7
Dickerson, M. G. (1979). FI schedules and persistence at gambling in the UK betting office. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 12: 315–323. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1979.12-315
Dickerson, M. G. (1993). Internal and external determinants of persistent gambling: problems in generalising from one form of gambling to another. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9 (3): 225–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01015920
Dickerson, M., & Baron, E. (2000). Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling. Addiction, 95 (SUPPL. 2): 1145-1159. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652140050111087
Dickson-Swift, V. A., James, E. L. & Kippen, S. (2005). The experience of living with a problem gambler: Spouses and partners speak out. Journal of Gambling Issues, 13: 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4309/jgi.2005.13.6
Dimitriou, E. C. (1986). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ): The validity of the Greek adult and junior version. Encephalos, 23: 41 - 54
el-Guebaly, N., Patten, S. B., Currie, S., Williams, J. V. A., Beck, C. A., Maxwell, C. J., και συν., (2006). Epidemiological associations between gambling behaviour, substance use & mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22: 275–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-006-9016-6
EL Hajjar, S. T. (2018). Statistical Analysis: Internal – Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity. International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods, 6 (1): 27-38.
Ely, J., Frankel, A. & Kamenica, E. (2015). Suspense and surprise. Journal of Political Economy, 123(1): 215–260. https://doi.org/10.1086/677350
Field, A. (2000) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows. London: Sage.
Field, A. P. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed ed). London: Sage Publications
Fiorillo, C. D., Tobler, P. N., & Schultz, W. (2003). Discrete coding of reward probability anduncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science; 299:1898–902. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1077349
Fong, T., Kalechstein, A., Bernhard, B., Rosenthal, R., Rugle, L. (2008). A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine for the treatment of video poker pathological gamblers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav; 89: 298–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2007.12.025
Fuentes, D., Tavares, H., Artes, R., Gorenstein, C. (2006) Self-reported and neuropsychological measures of impulsivity in pathological gambling. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 12: 907–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617706061091
Garner, D. M. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1979). The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9: 273 – 279. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700030762
Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12: 871 – 878. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700049163
Gerstein, D.R. (1999) Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Centre at the University of Chicago.
Getty, H. A., Watson, J. G., & Frisch, R. (2000). A comparison of depression and styles of coping in male and female GA members and controls. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16: 377–391. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:3A1009480106531
Goudriaan, A.E., Oosterlaan, J., de Beurs, E., van den Brink, W. (2006). Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: a comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls. Addictioν, 101: 534–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01380.x
Gowing, L.R., Ali, R.L., Allsop, S., Marsden, J., Turf, E.E., West, R., Witton, J. (2015). Global statistics on addictive behaviors: 2014 status report. Addiction, 110: 904‑19. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12899
Griffin, P. (2005). Developing a measure of wealth for primary student families in a developing country: Comparison of two methods of psychometric calibration. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 31: 192-206 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2005.05.010
Gupta R., & Derevensky J. L. (2000). Adolescents with gambling problems: from research to treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16: 315–42 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009493200768
Hahn, C., Wilson, T. D., McRae, K. & Gilbert, D. T. (2013). “Show me the money” vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(10): 1259–1267. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213492431
Hand, I. (1998). Pathological gambling: A negative state model and its implications for behavioral treatments. CNS Spectrums, 3 (6): 58-71. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900006027
Hodgins, D.C., Schopflocher, D.P., el-Guebaly, N., Casey, D.M., Smith, G.J., Williams, R.J., Wood, R.T. (2010). The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women. Psychological Addiction Behavior; 24: 548–54. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019946
Hodgins, D. C., Stea J. N., & Grant J. E., (2011). Gambling Disorders. Published online, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62185-X
Hodgins, D.C., Toneatto, T., Makarchuk, K. (2007). Minimal treatment approaches for concerned significant others of problem gamblers: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2):215–230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-006-9052-2
Hollander, E., DeCaria, C. M., Mari, E., Wong, C. M., Mosovich, S., Grossman, R., & Begaz, T. (1998). Short term single blind fluvoxamine treatment of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (12): 1781–1783. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.155.12.1781
Hollander, E., Frenkel, M., DeCaria, C., Trungold, S., & Stein, D. J. (1992). Treatment of pathological gambling with clomipramine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149: 710–711. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.149.5.710b
Hoorens, V. (1994). Unrealisitic optimism in health and safety risks. In: J., Chiu & L., Storm, (eds). Personality, Perceived Luck and Gambling Attitudes as Predictors of Gambling Involvement. Journal of Gambling Studies, 2010; 26: 205-227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-009-9160-x.
Hope, J., & Havir, L. (2002) You bet they’re having fun! Older Americans and casino gambling. Journal of Aging Studies, 16:177–97. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065(02)00043-9
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M., (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1): 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Ibanez, A., Blanco, C., de Castro, I.P., Fernández-Piqueras, J., & Sáiz-Ruiz, J. (2003). Genetics of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(1):11–22. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021271029163
Jöreskog, K.G., (1969). A general approach to confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 34: 183–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289343
Joukhador J, Blaszczynski A, Maccallum F. (2004). Superstitious beliefs in gambling among problem and non-problem gamblers: preliminary data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(2):171-80. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826089909039417
Kalechstein, A.D., Fong, T., Rosenthal, R.J., Davis, A., Vanyo, H., Newton, T.F. (2007) Pathological gamblers demonstrate frontal lobe impairment consistent with that of methamphetamine-dependent individuals. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 19: 298–303. https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.2007.19.3.298
Kalischuk, R. G., Nowatzki, N., Cardwell, K., Klein, K., & Solowoniuk, J. (2006). Problem gambling and its impact on families: A literature review. International Gambling Studies, 6(1): 31–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459790600644176
Kim, S. W., Grant, J. E., Eckert, E. D., Faris, P. L., & Hartman, B. K. (2006). Pathological gambling and mood disorders: Clinical associations and treatment implications. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92: 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.040
Krueger, T. H. C., Schedlowski, M., & Meyer, G. (2005). Cortisol and heart rate measures during casino gambling in relation to impulsivity. Neuropsychobiology, 52: 206-211. https://doi.org/10.1159/000089004
Ladouceur, R. (2004). Gambling: the hidden addiction. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8):501-3. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370404900801
Ladouceur, R., Boisvert, J.M., Pepin, M., Loranger, M. & Sylvain, C. (1994). Social cost of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10(4): 399- 409. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02104905
Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., & Giroud, I. (1999). Prevalence of problem gambling: a replication study 7 years later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44: 802–804. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1001986219288
Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Se´vigny, S., Poirier, L., Brisson, L., Dias, C., et al. (2004). Caracte´ristiques des joueurs excessifs selon le mode de traitement. Que´bec: Universite´ Laval. In: K., Bertrand, M., Dufour, J., Wright & Lasnier B. (eds). Adapted Couple Therapy (ACT) for Pathological Gamblers: A Promising Avenue. Journal of Gambling Studies, 2008; 24:393–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-008-9100-1
Lambe, L., Mackinnon, S. P. & Stewart, S. H. (2015). Validation of the gambling motives questionnaire in emerging adults. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(3): 867–885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-014-9467-0
Lawrence, A.J., Luty, J., Bogdan, N.A., Sahakian, B.J., Clark, L. (2009a). Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling. Psychopharmacology, 207: 163–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-009-1645-x
Lawrence, A. J., Luty, J., Bogdan, N. A., Sahakian, B. J., Clark, L. (2009b). Problem gamblers share deficits in impulsive decision-making with alcohol-dependent individuals. Addiction, 104: 1006–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02533.x
Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2006). What do we know about relapse in pathological gambling? Clinical Psychology Review, 26: 216–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.11.008
Ledgerwood, D. M., Alessi, S. M., Phoenix, N., & Petry, N. M. (2009). Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus healthy controls. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105(1-2): 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.011
Lee, H. P., Chae, P. K., Lee, H. S. & Kim, Y. K. (2007). The five-factor gambling motivation model. Psychiatry Research, 150(1): 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2006.04.005
Lesieur, H. R. & Blume, S. B. (1987) The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.144.9.1184.
Littman – Sharp, N., Turner N. E. & Toneatto T., (2009). Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS) User’ s Guide. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health of Ontario (CAMH).
Lobo, D. S., Kennedy, J. L. (2009) Genetic aspects of pathological gambling: a complex disorder with shared genetic vulnerabilities. Addiction, 104: 1454–65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02671.x
Lobo, D. S., Souza, R. P., Tong, R. P., et al. (2010). Association of functional variants in the dopamine D2-like receptors with risk for gambling behaviour in healthy Caucasian subjects. Biological Psychology, 85: 33–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.04.008
Martin, R. J., Usdan, S., Nelson, S., Umstattd, M. R., LaPlante, D., Perko, M., et al. (2010). Using the theory of planned behavior to predict gambling behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24: 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018452
McCormick, R. A., Taber, J. I., Kruedelbach, N., & Russo, A. M. (1987). Personality profiles of hospitalised pathological gamblers: the California Personality Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43 (5): 521–527. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198709)43:5<521::AID-JCLP2270430516>3.0.CO;2-Q
McElroy, S.L., Nelson, E.B., Welge, J.A., Kaehler, L., Keck, P.E. (2008). Olanzapine in the treatment of pathological gambling: a negative randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry, 69: 433–40. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.v69n0314
Meisel, M. K., Clifton, A. D., MacKillop, J., Miller, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Goodie, A. S. (2012). Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling. Addiction, 108: 584–591. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12014
Meyer, G., Hauffa, B.P., Schedlowski, M., Pawlak, C., Stadler, M. A., & Exton, M. S. (2000). Casino gambling increases heart rate and salivary cortisol in regular gamblers. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 48(9):948–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00888-X
Meyer, G., Schwertfeger, J., Exton, M.S., Janssen, O.E., Knapp, W., Stadler, M.A., Schedlowski, M., Kruger, T.H. (2004). Neuroendocrine response to casino gambling in problem gamblers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29: 1272–1280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.03.005
Moreno, I., Saiz-Ruiz, J., Lopez-Ibor, J.J. (1991). Serotonin and gambling dependence. Human Psychopharmacology 6: 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.470060503
Myrseth, H., Brunborg, G. S., & Eidem, M. (2010). Differences in cognitive distortions between pathological and non-pathological gamblers with preferences for chance or skill games. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(4): 561–569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-010-9180-6
Natelson, B. H. (2004). Stress, hormones, and disease. Physiology & Behavior 82(1):139–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.04.038
Nordin, C., & Eklundh, T. (1999) Altered CSF 5-HIAA disposition in pathological male gamblers. CNS Spectrum, 4:25–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900006799
Nordin, C., & Sjodin, I. (2006). CSF monoamine patterns in pathological gamblers and healthy controls. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40:454–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2005.06.003
Nower, L., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2004). The relationship of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping and substance use in youth gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1): 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.18.1.49
Ocean, G., & Smith, G. J. (1993). Social Reward, conflict, and commitment: a theoretical model of gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9(4): 321–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01014625
Oei, T.P. & Raylu, N. (2004). Familial influence on off spring gambling: a cognitive mechanism for transmission of gambling behaviour in families. Psychological Medicine; 34: 1279–88. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704003150
Oluwatayo, J. (2012). Validity and reliability issues in educational research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2: 391-400. https://doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2012.v2n2.391
Pallanti, S., Bernardi, S., Quercioli, L., DeCaria, C., & Hollander, E. (2006). Serotonin dysfunction in pathological gamblers: increased prolactin response to oral m-CPP versus placebo. CNS Spectrum, 11: 956–964. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900015145
Petry, N. M. (2001) Pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorders, discount delayed rewards at high rates. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110: 482–87. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.3.482
Petry, N. M. & Steinberg, K. L. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in male and female treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 19: 226–29. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.19.2.226
Potenza, M.N. (2006) Should addictive disorders include non‑substance‑related conditions? Addiction, 101(1):142‑51.
Potenza, M., Fiellin, D., Heninger, G., Rounsaville, B., Mazure, C. (2002) Gambling: An addictive behavior with health and primary care implications. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17: 721–732. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.10812.x
Potenza, M. N., & Hollander, E. (2002). Pathological gambling and impulse control disorders. In J. Coyle, C. Nemeroff, D. Charney, & K. Davis (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The 5th Generation of Progress p. 1725–1742. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkens.
Raylu, N. & Oei, T. P. S. (2004). The Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS): development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Addiction, 99: 757 – 769. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00753.x
Regard, M., Knoch, D., Gutling, E., Landis, T. (2003). Brain damage and addictive behavior: a neuropsychological and electroencephalogram investigation with pathologic gamblers. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 16: 47–53. https://doi.org/10.1097/00146965-200303000-00006
Reuter, J., Raedler, T., Rose, M., Hand, I., Gläscher, J., Büchel, C. (2005). Pathological gambling is linked to reduced activation of the mesolimbic reward system. Nature Neuroscience; 8:147–148. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1378
Roca, M., Torralva, T., Lopez, P., Cetkovich, M., Clark, L., Manes, F. (2008) Executive functions in pathologic gamblers selected in an ecologic setting. Cognitive Behavioral Neurology, 21: 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0b013e3181684358
Russell, D. W. (2002). In search of underlying dimensions: The use (and abuse) of factor analysis in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28: 1629–1646. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616702237645
Saris, W. E. & Gallhofer, I. (2007). Design, Evaluation, and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Research. New York: Wiley.
Scannell, E. D., Quirk, M. M., Smith, K., Maddern, R., & Dickerson, M., (2000). Females' coping styles and control over poker machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16: 417–432. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009484207439
Schreiber, L., Odlaug, B.L., Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E. (2009) Characteristics of pathological gamblers with a problem gambling parent. American Journal of Addiction; 18: 462–69. https://doi.org/10.3109/10550490903206007
Shaffer, H.J. & Hall, M.N. (2002). The natural history of gambling and drinking problems among casino employees. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142 (4): 405-424. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540209603909
Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of problem gambling. A biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(1): 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00087-8
Sharpe, L. & Tarrier, N. (1993). Towards a cognitive-behavioural theory of problem gambling. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162: 407–12. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.162.3.407
Shaw, M. C. Forbush, K. T., Schlinder, J., Rosenman, E., & Black, D. W. (2007). The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children. CNS Spectrum, August, 12(8), pp. 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900021416
Shepherd, L., & Dickerson, M., (2001). Situational coping with loss and control over gambling in regular poker machine players. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53: 160–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530108255140
Shinohara, K., Yanagisawa, A., Kagota, Y., Gomi, A., Nemoto, K., Moriya, E., Furusawa, E., Furuya, K., Terasawa, K., (1999). Physiological changes in Pachinko players; beta-endorphin, catecholamines, immune system substances and heart rate. Applied Human Science, 18:37–42. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.18.37
Slutske, W. S., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. & Poulton, R., (2005). Personality and Problem Gambling. A Prospective Study of a Birth Cohort of Young Adults. Archives of General Psychiatry. 62:769-775. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.7.769
Steel, Z., & Blaszczynski, A. (1998). Impulsivity, personality disorders and pathological gambling severity. Addiction, 93 (6): 895–905. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.93689511.x
Steeves, T.D., Miyasaki, J., Zurowski, M., Lang, A.E., Pellecchia, G., Van Eimeren, T., Rusjan, P., Houle, S., Strafella, A.P. (2009). Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain, 132: 1376–1385. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp054
Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An Interval Estimation Approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25 (2): 173-180. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4
Stevens, J. P. (1992). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences, (2nd edition ed). New Jersey: Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
Straub, D., Boudreau, M. C. & Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13: 380-427. https://doi.org/10.17705/1cais.01324
Sundqvist, K., Jonsson, J. & Wennberg, P. (2016). Gambling motives in a representative Swedish sample of risk gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(4): 1231–1241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-016-9607-9
Toneatto, T. (1999) Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use and Misuse, 34: 1593–1604. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(02)80049-9
Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwood, K., Dragonetti, R., and Tsanos, A. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024983300428
Tzemos, J. (1984). The standardization of the Beck depression inventory in a Greek population sample. Medical School, University of Athens, Thesis.
Verdejo-Garcia, A., Lawrence, A.J., Clark, L., (2008). Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Review, 32: 777–810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.11.003
Vitaro, F., Arsenault, L., & Tremblay, R.E. (1999). Impulsivity predicts problem gambling in low SES adolescent males. Addiction, 94: 565–575. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.94456511.x
Voon, V., Fernagut, P.O., Wickens, J., Baunez, C., Rodriguez, M., Pavon, N., Juncos, J.L., Obeso, J.A., Bezard, E., (2009). Chronic dopaminergic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from dyskinesias to impulse control disorders. Lancet Neurol., 8: 1140–1149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70287-X
Walters, G. D., 2001. Behavior genetic research on gambling and problem gambling: A preliminary meta-analysis of available data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(4), pp. 255–71. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013652328999
Welte, J. W., Wieczorek, W. F., Barnes, G. M., & Tidwell, M. O. (2006). Multiple risk factors for frequent and problem gambling: Individual, social, and ecological. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36:1548–1568. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00071.x
Wohl, M. J. A., & Enzle, M. E. (2003). The effects of near wins and losses on self-perceived personal luck and subsequent gambling behaviour. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39: 184–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00525-5
Wohl, M. J. A., Young, M. M., & Hart, K. E. (2007). Self-perceptions of dispositional luck: Relationship to DSM gambling symptoms, subjective enjoyment of gambling and treatment readiness. Substance Use and Misuse, 42: 42–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080601094223
Young, A. M. J., Ahier, M. G., Upton, R. L., Joseph, M. H., Gray, J. A. (1998). Increased extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat during associative learning of neutral stimuli. Neuroscience; 83: 1175–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00483-1
Zack, M., & Poulos, C. X. (2004). Amphetamine primes motivation to gamble and gambling - related semantic networks in problem gamblers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29:195–207. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300333
Zack, M. & Poulos, C. X. (2007). A D2 antagonist enhances the rewarding and priming effects of a gambling episode in pathological gamblers. Neuropsychopharmacology; 32: 1678–86. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301295
Zangeneh, M., Grunfeld, A., & Koenig, S. (2008). Individual factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. In M., Zangeneh, Α., Blaszczynski, & N. E., Turner (Eds.). In the pursuit of winning: Problem gambling theory, research and treatment (pp. 83-94). New York: Springer Science and Business Media. 978-0-387-72173-6 (Online)
Zhuravliova, I. (2010). Engaging in gambling as a psychosocial process in modern societies: the example of Greek society. (Phd Study), Athens: Panteion University, Department of Psychology.
Zuckerman, M. (1999). Vulnerability to psychopathology: a biosocial model. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. In: N., Raylu & T. P. S., Oei (eds.). Pathological Gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 2002; 22: 1009 – 1061 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00101-0
Most read articles by the same author(s)