| More

Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods for the diagnosis of ectopic ureters in the dog

Views: 462 Downloads: 253
P. MANTIS, D. BROCKMAN, C. WHATMOUGH, S. P. GREGORY, C. R. LAMB, P. MAHONEY, S. JAKOVLJEVIC
P. MANTIS, D. BROCKMAN, C. WHATMOUGH, S. P. GREGORY, C. R. LAMB, P. MAHONEY, S. JAKOVLJEVIC

Abstract


The clinical records of dogs with urinary incontinence, examined at the Queen Mother Hospital for animals between November 1995 and January 2006, were reviewed. Only dogs that had at least one contrast radiographic study, ultrasonographic examination of the ureters and surgical diagnosis were included. All the cases were examined on an individual ureter basis and on a case basis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated for intravenous urography, retrograde urethrography or retrograde vaginourethrography and ultrasonographic examination of the ureterovescicular junctions. Ultrasonographic examination of the ureterovescicular junctions had the higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy from the imaging methods with only intravenous urography having mildly higher sensitivity when examined on a ureter base. The main failure of ultrasonographic examination of the ureterovescicular junctions was the identification of the correct side of ectopia. When evaluated on a case basis ultrasonographic examination of the ureterovescicular junctions had perfect sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The lower mainly specificity and accuracy of intravenous urography and retrograde urethrography or retrograde vaginourethrography were probably related to the difficulty in identifying the location of the ureterovesicular junction.


Keywords


Radiography; ultrasonography; ectopia; urinary system; ureter

Full Text:

PDF

References


Carnnizzo, K.L., McLoughlin, M.A., Mattoon, J.S., Samii, V.F., Chew, DJ., DiBartola, S.P., 2003. Evaluation of transurethral cystoscopy and excretory urography for diagnosis of ectopic ureters in female dogs: 25 cases (1992-2000). J.Am.Vet.Med.Assoc. 223, 475-481.

Cox, LH., Erickson, S.J., Foley, W.D., Dewire, D.M., 1992. Ureteral jets: evaluation of normal flow dynamics with color Doppler sonography. American Journal of Roentgenology 158,1051-1055.

De Baerdemaecker, G.C, 1984. Post spaying vaginal discharge in a bitch caused by acquired vaginoureteral fistula. Veterinary Record 115, 62.

Douglas, J.P., 1993. Bladder wall mass effect caused by the intramural portion of the canine ureter. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 34,107-107.

Fossum, T.W., 1997. Surgery of the kidney and ureter. In: Small Animal Surgery. Mosby, St. Louis, USA, pp. 461-480.

Hager, D., Blevins, W.E., 1986. Ectopic ureter in a dog: extension from the kidney to the urinary bladder and to the urethra. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189, 309-310.

Holt, P.E., Gibbs, C, Pearson, H., 1982. Canine ectopic ureter-a review of twenty-nine cases. Journal of Small Animal Practice 23,195-208.

Holt, P.E., Gibbs, C, 1992. Congenital urinary incontinence in cats: A review of 19 cases. Veterinary Record 130, 437-442.

Holt, P.E., Hotson Moore, Α., 1995. Canine ureteral ectopia: An analysis of 175 cases and comparison of surgical treatments. Veterinary Record 136, 345-349.

Lamb, CR., Gregory, S.P., 1994. Ultrasonography of the ureterovescicular junction in the dog: a preliminary report. Veterinary Record 134, 36-38.

Lamb, CR., Gregory, S.P., 1998. Ultrasonographic findings in 14 dogs with ectopic ureter. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 39,218-223.

Lamb, CR., 1998. Ultrasonography of the ureters. Veterinary Clinics of North America (Small Animal Practice) 28: 823-848.

Mason, L.K., Stone, E.A., Biery, D.N., Robertson, I., Thrall, D.E., 1990. Surgery of ectopic ureters: pre- and postoperative radiographic morphology. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 24, 73-79.

Osborne, CA., Johnson, G.R., Kruger, J.M., 1995. Ectopic ureters and ureterocoeles. In: Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA, pp. 608-622.

Samii, V.F., McLoughlin, Α., Mattoon, J.S., Drost, T., Chew, D.J., DiBartola, S.P., Hoshaw-Woodard, 2004. Digital fluoroscopi excretory urography, digital fluoroscopic urethrography, helical computed tomography and cystoscopy in 24 dogs with suspected

ureteral ectopia. J Vet Intern Med 18, 271-281.

Stone, E.A., Mason, L.K., 1990. Surgery of ectopic ureters: Types, Method of Correction and postoperative results. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 26, 81-88.

Vining, D.J., Gladish, G.W., 1992. Receiver operating characteristic curves: a basic understanding. Radiographics 12, 1147-1154.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 P. MANTIS, D. BROCKMAN, C. WHATMOUGH, S. P. GREGORY, C. R. LAMB, P. MAHONEY, S. JAKOVLJEVIC