| More

Defense mechanisms in the bovine mammary gland

Views: 496 Downloads: 397


In the present article the literature on the defence mechanisms of the bovine mammary gland is reviewed. The article is divided into three sections: (i) The teat, (ii) Cellular defence mechanisms (number of somatic cells, type of somatic cells, counting of somatic cells, defence role of somatic cells: macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes) and (iii) Chemoral defence mechanisms (cytokines: IL-1, IL-2, IL-8, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor and TNF-a, immunoglobulins, complement, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate/ H 2 0 2 system, lysozyme).


cows; mastitis; cellular defence; chemoral defence; defence mechanisms

Full Text:



Adams DO, Hamilton TA (1988) Phagocytic cell: cytotoxic activities of macrophages. In: Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates. Raven Press, New York, 471-492

Anderson KL, Smith AR, Shanks RD, Whitmore HL, Davis LE, Gustafsson BK (1986) Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, and effect of flunixin meglumine. Am J Vet Res, 47:2405-2410

Arnaout MA, Melamed J, Tack BF, Colten HR (1981) Characterization of the human complement (c3b) receptor with a fluid phase C3b dimer. J Immunol, 127:1348-1354

Baggiolini M, Horisberger U, Gennaro R, Dewald Β (1985) Identification of three types of granules in neutrophils of ruminants. Ultrastructure of circulating and maturing cells. Lab Invest, 52:151-158

Banks JG, Tranter HS (1985) Lysozyme. Procedings of Symposium on natural antimicrobial systems, Bath, England, 38-48

Barkema HW, Schans J van der, Schukken YH, Gee ALW de, Lam TJGM, Benedictus G (1997) Effect of freezing on somatic cell count of quarter milk samples as determined by a fossomatic electronic cell counter. J Dairy Sci, 80:422-426

Barrio B, Vangroenweghe F, Dosogne H, Burvenich C (2000) Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain. Vet Res, 31:603-609

Beaundeau F, Frankena K, Fourichon C, Seegers H, Faye B, Noordhuizen JPTM (1997) Associations between healthy disorders on French dairy cows and early and late culling within the lactation. Prev Vet Med, 19:213-231

Berenji SNH, Jain NC (1983) Antibacterial activity of bovine blood neutrophils and their cationic proteins. J Dairy Sci, 66:1377-1383

Björk L (1985) The lactoperoxidase system. Proceedings of Symposium on natural antimicrobial systems, Bath, England, 18-30

Brito JRF, Caldeira GAV, Verneque RD, Brito MAVPE (1997) Sensitivity and specificity of the California Mastitis Test as a diagnostic tool for subclinical mastitis in quarter somatic cell

count estimation. Pesquisa Vet Brasil, 17:49-53

Brolund L (1985) Cell counts in bovine milk: causes of variation and applicability for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Capuco AV, Bright SA, Pankey JW, Wood DL, Miller RH, Bitman J (1992) Increased susceptibility to intramammary infection following removal of teat canal keratin. J Dairy Sci, 75:2126-2130

Capuco AV, Paape MJ, Nickerson SC (1986) In vitro study of polymorphonuclear leukocyte damage to mammary tissues of lactating cows. Am J Vet Res, 47:663-668

Carlo AL Di, Paape MJ, Miller RH (1996) Reactivity of purified complement component 3b with bovine neutrophils and modulation of complement receptor 1. Am J Vet Res, 57:151-156

Carlsson Â, Björk L, Persson Κ (1989) Lactoferrin and lysozyme in milk during acute mastitis and their inhibitory effect in Delvotest P. J Dairy Sci, 72:3166-3175

Caswell JL, Middleton DM, Gordon JR (2001) The importance of interleukin-8 as a neutrophil chemoattractant in the lungs of cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Can J Vet Res, 65:229-232

Chew BP, Michal JJ, Wong TS, Heirman LR (1991) Effects of lacroferrin on mammary polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in dairy cow. J Dairy Sci, 74(Suppl. 1):166

Colditz IG, Mass PJCM (1987) The inflammatory activity of activated complement in ovine and bovine mammary glands. Immunol Cell Biol, 65:433-436

Collins RA, Oldham G (1986) Proliferative responses and IL-2 production by mononuclear-cells from bovine mammary secretions, and the effect of mammary secretions on peripheralblood lymphocytes. Immunology, 58:647-651

Collins RA, Parsons KR, Bland AP (1986) Antibody-containing cells and specialized epithelial cells in the bovine teat. Res Vet Sci, 41:50-55

Collins RA, Parsons KR, Field TR, Bramley AJ (1988) Histochemical localization and possible antibacterial role of xanthine oxidase in bovine mammary gland. J Dairy Res, 55:25-32

Craven Ν (1983) Generation of neutrophil chemoattractants by phagocytosing bovine mammary macrophages. Res. Vet. Sci., 35:310-317.

Craven Ν (1986) Chemotactic factors for bovine neutrophils in relation to mastitis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis, 9:29-36

Craven N, Williams MR (1985) Defences of the bovine mammary gland against infection and prospects for their enhancement. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 10:71-127

Daley MJ, Williams T, Dougherty R, Coyle P, Furda G, Hayes Ρ (1991). Staphylococcus aureus mastitis: pathogenesis and treatment with bovine interleukin-1 and interleukin-2. J Dairy Sci, 74:4413

Daley MJ, Williams T, Dougherty R, Furda G, Hayes P, Coyle (1993). Prevention and therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections with recombinant cytokines. Cytokine, 5:276-283

Djabri B, Bareille N, Beaudeau F, Seegers Η (2002) Quarter milksomatic cell count in infected dairy cows: a meta-analysis. Vet Res, 33:335-357

Dohoo IR, Leslie KE (1991) Evaluation of changes in somatic cell counts as indicators of new intramammary infections. Prev Vet Med, 10:225-237

Doymaz MZ, Sordillo LM, Oliver SP, Guidry AJ (1988) Effects of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on bovine mammary gland plasma cell populations and immunoglobulin concentration in milk. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 20:87-93

Emanuelson U, Olsson T, Mattila Τ, Aström G, Holmberg Ο (1988) Effects of parity and stage of lactation on adenosine triphosphate, somatic cell count and antitrypsin content in cow's milk. J Dairy Res, 55:49-55

Fitzpatrick JL, Cripps PJ, Hill AW, Bland PW, Stokes CR (1992) MHC class II expression in the bovine mammary gland. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 59:79-91

Gennaro R, Dolzani L, Romeo D (1983) Potency of bactericidal proteins purified from the large granules of bovine neutrophils. Infect Immun, 40:684-690

Gennaro R, Romeo D, Dewald Β, Baggiolini M (1982) The bovine neutrophil. Separation and partial characterization of plasmamembrane and cytoplasmic granules. Adv Exp Med Biol 141:277-281

Gennaro R, Schneider C, Nicola G de, Cian F, Romeo D (1978) Biochemical properties of bovine granulocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 157:342-347

Goodman RE, Schanbacher FL (1991) Bovine lactoferrin mRNA: sequence, analysis, and expression in the mammary gland. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 180:75-84

Gordon S, Todd J, Cohn ZA (1974) In vitro synthesis and secretions of lysozyme by mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med, 139:1228-1248

Götze Ρ, Meyer J, Buschmann Η (1977) Untersuchungen über den Lysozymgehalt im Blut und in der Milch von gesunden und euterkranken Rinden. Zbl Vet Med B, 24:560-568

Guidry AJ, Miller RH (1986). Immunoglobulin isotype concentration: in milk as affected by stage of lactation and parity. J Dairy Sci, 69:1799-1805

Hamblin AS (1993) Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors. Oxford, Oxford University Press

Harmon RJ, Newbould FHS (1980) Neutrophil leukocyte as a source of lactoferrin in bovine milk. Am J Vet Res, 41:1603-1606

Harmon RJ, Schanbacher FL, Ferguson LC, Smith KL (1975) Concentration of lactoferrin in milk of normal lactating cows and changes occurring during mastitis. Am J Vet Res, 36:1001-1007

Hemingway RG (1999) The influence of dietary selenium and vitamin E intakes on milk somatic cell counts and mastitis in cows. Vet Res Commun, 23:481-499

Hibbitt KG, Craven N, Batten EH (1992) Anatomy, physiology and immunology of the udder. In: Bovine Medicine: Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 276-278

Hillerton JE (1999) Redefining mastitis based on somatic cell count. Bui Intnatl Dairy Fed, 345:4-6

Hogan JS, Duthie AH, Pankey JW (1986) Fatty-acid composition of bovine teat canal keratin. J Dairy Sci, 69:2424-2427

Hogeveen H, Miltenburg JD, Hollander S den, Frankena Κ (2001) Milking three times a day and its affect on udder health and production. Intnatl Dairy Fed Mastitis Newsletter, 24:7

Howard CJ, Taylor G, Brownlie J (1980) Surface receptors for immunoglobulin on bovine polymorhonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. Res Vet Sci, 29:128-130

Huszenicza G, Janosi S, Gaspardy A, Kulcsar M (2004) Endocrine aspects in pathogenesis of mastitis in postpartum dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, υπό εκτύπωση.

International Dairy Federation (2003) Ruminant Mammary Gland Immunology. IDF Special Issue, 302

Jain NC (1986) Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Kampen C van, Mallard BA (1997) Effects of peripartum stress and health on circulating bovine lymphocyte s. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 59:79-91

Klaas IC, Wessels V, Rothfuss H, Tenhangen BA, Henwieser W, Schallenberger E (2004) Factors affecting reproductive performance in German Holstein-Friesian cows with a special focus on postpartum mastitis. Liv Prod Sci, 86:233-238

Klebanoff SJ (1970) In Biochemistry of the Phagolytic Process. North Holland Publishing Company, London

Krömker V, Grabowski NT, Redetzky R, Hamann J (2001) Detection of mastitis using selected quarter-milk parameters. Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Bovine Mastitis and Milk Quality, Vancouver, Canada, 486-487

Lie O, Syed M, Solbu Η (1986) Improved agar plat assays of bovine lysozyme and haemolytic complement activity. Acta Vet Scand, 27:23-32

Mallard BA, Dekkers JC, Ireland MJ, Leslie KE, Sharif S, Kampen C van, Wagter L, Wilkie BN (1998) Alteration in immune responsiveness during the peripartum period and its ramification on dairy cows and calf health. J Dairy Sci, 81:585-595

Masson PL, Heremans JF, Dive CH (1966) An iron-binding protein common to many external secretions. Clin Chim Acta, 14:735-739

Mayer SJ, Waterman AE, Keen PM, Craven N, Bourne EJ (1988) Oxygen concentration in milk and of healthy and mastitic cows and implications of low oxygen tension for the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by bovine neutrophils. J Dairy Res, 55:513-519

Mehrzad J, Dosogne H, Vangroenweghe F, Burvenich C (2001) A comparative study of bovine blood and milk neutrophil functions with luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Luminescence, 16:343-356

Monks J, Geske FJ, Lehman L, Fadok VA (2002) Do inflammatory cells participate in mammary gland involution? J Mammary Gland Biol, 7:163-176

Mottram T, Hart J, Pemberton R (2000) Biosensing techniques for detecting abnormal and contaminated milk. Proceedings of Conference on Robotic Miliking, Lelystad, The Netherlands, 108-113

Neave FK, Dodd FH, Kingwill RG, Westgarth DR (1969) Control of mastitis in the dairy herd by hygiene and management. J Dairy Sci, 52:696-707

Newbould FH (1973) The effect of added serum and glucose and some inherent factors, on phagocytosis in vitro by milk leukocytes from several cows. Can J Comp Med, 37:189-194

Nicxerson SC (1987) Resistance mechanisms of the bovine udder: new implications for mastitis at the teat end. J Am Vet Med Ass 191:1484-1488

Nickerson SC, Pankey JW (1983) Cytolytic observations of the bovine teat end. Am J Vet Res, 44:1433-1441

Niemialtowski M, Nonnecke Β J, Targowski SP (1988) Phagocytic activity of milk leukocytes during chronic staphylococcal mastitis J Dairy Sci, 71:768-787

Norcross NL (1991) Specific defence mechanisms of the udder. Flem Vet J, 62(Suppl. 1): 129-139

Oliver SP, Sordillo LM (1989). Approaches to the manipulation ofmammary involytion. J Dairy Sci, 72:1647-1664

Östensson Κ, Hageltorn M, Astrom G (1988) Differential cell counting in fraction-collected milk from dairy-cows. Acta Vet Scand, 29:493-500

Osterlundh I, Hoist H, Magnusson U (1998) Hormonal and immunological changes in blood and mammary secretion in the sow at parturition. Theriogenology, 50:465-477.

Outteridge P.M. and Lee CS., 1981. Cellular immunity in themammary gland with particular reference to Τ, Β lymphocytes and macrophages. Exp. Med. Biol., 137:513-534.

Paape MJ, Bannerman DD, Zhao X, Lee JW (2003) The bovineneutrophil: structure and function in blood and milk. Vet Res, 34:597-627

Paape M J, Guidry AJ (1977) Effect of fat and casein on intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by milk leukocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 155:588-593

Paape MJ, Guidry AJ, Jain NC, Miller RH (1991) Leukocytic defence mechanisms in the udder. Flem Vet J, 62(Suppl. 1):95-109

Paape MJ, Guidry AJ, Kirk ST, Bolt DJ (1975) Measurement of phagocytosis of 32p-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine leukocytes: lysostaphin digestion and inhibitory effect of cream. Am J Vet Res, 36:1737-1743

Paape MJ, Schultze WD, Guidry AJ (1985) Development of natural defense mechanisms. Kieler Milchw Forsch, 37:447-457

Paape MJ, Wergin WP (1977) The leukocyte as a defense mechanism. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 170:1214-1223

Paape M J, Wergin WP, Guidry AJ, Pearson RE (1979) Leukocytesecond line of defense against invading mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci, 62:135-153

Persson Κ (1992) Studies on inflammation in the bovine teat. Thesis,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Persson K, Colditz IG, Flapper P, Franklin NAF, Seow HF (1996)

Cytokine-induced inflammation in the ovine teat and udder. Vet Immunol Immunopath, 53:73-85

Persson K, Larsson I, Sandgren CH (1993) Effects of certain inflammatory mediators on bovine neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 37:99-112

Politis I, McBride BW, Burton JH, Zhao X, Turner JD (1991) Secretion of interleukin-1 by bovine milk macrophages. Am J Vet Res, 52:858-862

Politis I, Zhao X, McBride BW, Burton JH (1992) Function of bovine mammary macrophages as antigen-presenting cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 30:399-410

Pyorala S (2003) Indicators of inflammation in the diagnosis of mastitis. Vet Res, 34:565-578

Rainard Ρ (2003) The complement in milk and defense of the bovine mammary gland against infections. Vet Res, 34:647-670

Rainard P, Poutrel Β (1995) Deposition of complement components on Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk in the absence of inflammation. Infect Immun, 63:3422-3427

Rainard P, Poutrel Β (2000) Generation of complement fragment C5a in milk is variable among cows. J Dairy Sci, 83:945-951

Rausch PG, Moore TG (1975) Granule enzymes of polymorphonuclear neutrophils: a phylogenetic comparison. Blood, 46:913-919

Reiter Β (1985) Protective Proteins in Milk - Biological Significance and Exploitation. Bui Intnatl Dairy Fed, 191

Ruegg PL, Reinemann DJ (2002) Milk quality and mastitis tests. BovPract, 36:41-54

Sandgren CH (1991) The Neutrophil in the Bovine Udder, Friend or Foe? Studies of Bovine Neutrophil Function in Blood, Milk and Teat Secretions. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

Sandholm M (1995) Detection of inflammatory changes in milk. In: The Bovine Udder and Mastitis. Gummerus, Jyvaskyla, 89-104

Sargeant JM, Leslie KE, Shirley JE, Pulkrabek JL, Liim GH (2001) Sensitivity and specificity of soamtic cell count and California Mastitis Test for identifying intramammary infection in early lactation. J Dairy Sci, 84:2018-2024

Savoini A, Marzari R, Dolzani L, Serrano D, Graziosi G, Gennaro R, Romeo D (1984) Wide-spectrum antibiotic activity of bovine granulocyte polypeptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 26:405-407

Schanbacher FL, Goodman RE, Talhouk RS (1993) Bovine mammary lactoferrin: implications from messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) sequence and regulation contrary to other milk proteins J Dairy Sci, 76:3812-3831

Schijins VECJ, Horzinek MC (1997) Cytokines in Veterinary Medicine. Oxford, CAB

International. Schukken YH, Wilson DJ, Welcome F, Tikofsky LG, Gonzalez RN (2003) Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts. Vet Res, 34:579-596

Senft B, Meyer F, Hartmann ML (1990) The importance of proteins of teat canal keratin as complex defense system of bovine mammary gland. Milchwissenschaft, 45:295-298

Shahani KM, Chandan RC, Kelly PL, MacQuiddy EL (1962) Determination of lysozyme in milk and factors affecting its concentration and properties. Proceedings of the 8th

International Dairy Congress, 285-294

Sladek Z, Rysanek D (2001) Neutrophil apoptosis during the resolution of bovine mammary gland injury. Res Vet Sci, 70:41-46.

Smith KL, Oliver SP (1981) Lactoferrin: a component of nonspecific defense of the involuting bovine mammary gland. Adv Exp Med Biol, 137:535-554

Sordillo LM, Babiuk LA (1991) Controlling acute Escherichia coli mastitis during the periparturient period with recombinant bovine interferon-gamma. Vet Microbiol, 28:189-198

Sordillo LM, Nickerson SC, Akers RM, Oliver SP (1987) Secretions composition during bovine mammary involution and the relationship with mastitis. Int J Biochem, 19:1165-1172

Sordillo LM, Pighetti GM, Davis MR (1995) Enhanced production of bovine tumor necrosis factor-a during periparturient period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 49:263-270

Sordillo LM, Redmond MJ, Campos M, Warren L, Babiuk LA (1991) Cytokine activity in bovine mammary gland secretions during the periparturient period. Can J Vet Res, 55:298-301

Sordillo LM, Streicher KL (2002) Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. J Mammary Gland Biol, 7:135-146

Sordillo LM, Weaver KS, DeRosa D (1997) Immunobiology of the mammary gland. J Dairy Sci, 80:1851-1865

Treece JM, Morese GE, Llevy C (1966) Lipid analyses of bovine teat canal keratin J Dairy Sci, 49:1240

Vakil JR, Chandan RC, Parry RM, Shahani KM (1969) Susceptibility of several microorganisms to milk lysozymes. J Dairy Sci, 52:1192-1197

Vermunt AEM, Loeffen GJM, Vandervoet H, Naber MAAM (1995) Development of reference samples for the calibration and quality-control of somatic-cell count using a fossomatic instrument. Neth Milk Dairy J, 49:111-123

Walker KP (2000) Mammary gland immunology around parturition. Influence of stress, nutrition and genetics. Adv Exp Med Biol, 480:231-245

Waller KP, Colditz IG, Seow HF (1997) Accumulation of leucocytes and cytokines in the lactating ovine udder during mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Res Vet Sci, 62:63-66

Wang Y, Zarlenga DS, Paape MJ, Dahl GE (1997) Recombinant bovine soluble CD 14 sensitizes the mammary gland to lipopolysaccharide. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 86:115-124

Weaver KAS, Cori CM, Sordillo LM (1999) Shifts in bovine CD+4 subpopulations increase TH-2 compared to TH-1 effector cells during the postpartum period. J Dairy Sci, 82:1696-1706

Weaver KAS, Pighetti GM, Sordillo LM (1996) Diminished mammary gland lymphocyte functions parallel shifts in trafficking patetrns during the postpartum period. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 212:271-280

Williams DM, Mein GA (1985) The role of machine milking in the invasion of mastitis organisms and implication for maintaining low infection rates. Kieler Milchw Forsch, 47:415-425

Yount NY, Yuan J, Tarver A, Castro T, Diamond G, Tran PA, Levy JN, McCullough C, Cullor J, Bevins CL, Selsted ME (1999) Cloning and expression of bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. Biosynthetic profile during neutrophilic maturation and localization of mature peptide to novel cytoplasmic dense granules. J Biol Chem, 274:26249-26258


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 V. S. MAVROGIANNI, G. C. FTHENAKIS