| More

Pregnancy toxaemia of ewes. A literature review

Views: 195 Downloads: 266
N. PANOUSIS (Ν. ΠΑΝΟΥΣΗΣ), C. BROZOS (Χ. ΜΠΡΟΖΟΣ), G. C. FTHENAKIS (Γ. Χ. ΦΘΕΝΑΚΗΣ), C. KARATZIAS (Χ. ΚΑΡΑΤΖΙΑΣ)
N. PANOUSIS (Ν. ΠΑΝΟΥΣΗΣ), C. BROZOS (Χ. ΜΠΡΟΖΟΣ), G. C. FTHENAKIS (Γ. Χ. ΦΘΕΝΑΚΗΣ), C. KARATZIAS (Χ. ΚΑΡΑΤΖΙΑΣ)

Abstract


Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder of ewes, occurring at the final stage of pregnancy. In this review article, the literature on the aetiology and the pathogenesis of the disease is reviewed, the clinical, laboratory and postmortem findings are described, the diagnosis is presented and the control of the disease is discussed.


Keywords


pregnancy toxaemia; gestation; reproduction; sheep

Full Text:

PDF

References


McClymont GL, Setchell BP. Ovine pregnancy toxaemia. 1. Tentative identification as a hypoglycaemic encepalopathy. Aus. vet. J. 31:53

Παπαστεριάδης Α. Διατροφικά νοσήματα των αιγοπροβάτων στην Ελλάδα και τρόποι αντιμετώπισης τους. Πρακτικά Διεθνοΰς Σεμιναρίου Παραγωγής και Αξιοποίησης Αιγο-

πρόβειου Γάλακτος (Αθήνα), 1985,173

Αργυροΰδης Σ., Ψΰχας Β., Καρατζάνος Π., Αεοντίδης Σ., Κυριακής ΣΚ. Επίκαιρα μεταβολικά νοσήματα της ελληνικής αιγοπροβατοτροφίας. Πρακτικά 2ου Πανελλήνιου Συμποσίου Κτηνιατρικής Μικρών Μηρυκαστικών (Καρδίτσα), 1998,42

Cantley CE, Ford CM, Heath MF. Serum fructosamide in ovine pregnancy toxaemia: a possible prognostic index. Vet Ree 1991,128:525

Goff JP, Horst RL. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J Dairy Sci 1997, 80:1260

Bell AW. Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J anim Sci 1995,73:2804

Guard C. Metabolic diseases: a herd approach. In: Rebhun W, Diseases of Dairy Cattle, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1995,497

Andrews A. Pregnancy toxaemia in the ewe. In Pract 1997, 19:306

Bertics SJ, Grummer RR, Valino CC, Stoddard EE. Effect of prepartum dry matter intake on liver triglyceride concentration and early lactation. J Dairy Sci 1992,75:1914

Grummer RR. Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the transition dairy cow. J anim Sci 1995,73:2820

Godwin I, Kauter K, O'Shea T, McFarlane JR. Sexual dimorphism and pregnancy profiles of leptin in Merino sheep. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reproduction

of Small Ruminants, 2000 (Sandnes, Norway), 52

Zaenuri L, Godwin I. Effects of pregnancy and lactation on reticulo-rumen motility in sheep. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reproduction of Small Ruminants, 2000 (Sandnes, Norway), 53

Herdt TH. Fatty liver in dairy cows. Vet Clin Ν Am (Food Anim Pract) 1988,4:269

Fleming SA. Ketosis of ruminants (acetonemia). In: Smith B, Large Animal Internal Medicine, 2nd ed., Mosby, St Louis, 1996,1455

Kasari TR. Medical management of common physiologic and metabolic abnormalities in anorectic cattle. Food Anim Pract 1994, Sept:898

Heitmann RN, Dawes DJ, Sensenig SC. Hepatic ketonogenesis and peripheral ketone body utilization in the ruminant. J Nutr 1987,117:1174

Henze P, Bickhardt K, Fuhrmann H, Sallmann HP. Spontaneous pregnancy toxaemia (xetosis) in sheep and the role of insulin. Zblatt VetMed A1998,45:255

Hay LA, Baird GD. Pregnancy toxaemia. In: Martin WB, Aitken IA, Diseases of Sheep, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford, 1994,254

Pearson EG, Maas J. Hepatic lipidosis. In: Smith B, Large Animal Internal Medicine, 2nd ed., Mosby, St Louis, 1996,937

Veenhuizen JJ, Drackley JK, Richard MJ, Sanderson TP, Miller LD, Young JW. Metabolic changes in blood and liver during development and early treatment of experimental fatty liver and ketosis in cows. J Dairy Sci 1991,74:4238

Drackley JK, Richard MJ, Beitz DC, Young JW. Metabolic changes in dairy cows with ketonemia in response to feed restriction and dietary 1,3-butanediol. J Dairy Sci. 1992,75:1622

Maisey I, Andrews AH, Laven RA. Efficacy of recombinant bovine somatotrophin in the treatment of fat cow syndrome. Vet. Ree. 1993,133:293

Grummer RR. Etiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1993,76:3882

Moore DA, Ishler V. Managing dairy cows during the transition period: focus on ketosis. Food Anim Pract 1997, Dec: 1061

Kleppe BB, Aiello RJ, Grummer RR, Armentano LE. Triglyceride accumulation and very low density lipoprotein secretion by the rat and goat hepatocytes in vitro. J Dairy Sci 1988,71:1813

Grummer RR, Carroll DJ. Effects of dietary fat on metabolic disorders and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. J anim Sci 1991,69:3838

Strang BD, Bertics SJ, Grummer RR, Armentano LE. Effect of long-chain fatty acids on triglyceride accumulation, gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in bovine hepatocytes. J Dairy Sci 1998,81:728.

Tveit B, Lingaas F, Svedsen M, Sjaastad OV. Etiology of acetonemia in Norwegian cattle. 1. Effect of ketogenic silage, season, energy level and genetic factors. J Dairy Sci 1992, 75:2421

Reid IM, Roberts CJ, Treacher RJ, Williams LA. Effect of body condition at calving on tissue mobilization, development of fatty liver and blood chemistry of dairy cows. Anim Prod 1986,43:7

Lean IJ, Bruss ML, Troutt HF, Galland JC, Farver TB, Rostami J, Holmberg CA, Weaver LD. Bovine ketosis and somatotrophin: risk factors for ketosis and effects of ketosis on health and production. Res, vet. Sci. 1994,57:200

Treacher RJ, Reid IM, Roberts CJ. Effect of body condition at calving on the health and performance of dairy cows. Anim Prod 1986,43:1

Vasquez MA, Bertics S J, Grummer RR. The effect of dietary energy source during mid to late lactation on liver triglyceride and lactation performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1997, 80:2504

Studer VA, Grummer RR, Bertics SJ, Reynolds CK. Effect of prepartum propylene glycol administration on periparturient fatty liver in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1993,76:2931

Scott PR. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from field cases of some common ovine neurological diseases. Br vet J 1992, 148:15

Scott PR, Woodman MP. An outbreak of pregnancy toxaemia in a flock of Scottish blackface sheep. Vet Ree 1993,133:597

Thomson RW. Pregnancy toxaemia: a cautionary tale of economic pressures. Proc Sheep Vet Soc, 1999,23:97

Scott PR, Sargison ND, Penny CD. Evaluation of recombinant bovine somatotropin in the treatment of ovine pregnancy toxaemia. Vet J. 1998,155:197

Scott PR, Sargison ND, Penny CD, Pirie RS, Kelly JM. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glucose concentration of ovine pregnancy toxaemia cases, inappetant ewes and normal ewes during late gestation. Br vet J 1995,151:39

Ford EJ, Evans J, Robinson I. Cortisol in pregnancy toxaemia in sheep. Br. vet. J. 1990,146:539

Bickherdt K, Henze P, Ganter M. [Clinical findings and differential diagnosis in ketosis and hypocalcemia in sheep.] (De) Dtsch Tierarzt! Wochenschr 1998,105:413

Scott P. Differential diagnosis of common metabolic disorders of sheep. In Pract 1995,17:266

Studer E. A veterinary perspective of on-farm evaluation of nutrition and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 1998,81:872.

Foster LA. Clinical ketosis. Vet Clin Ν Am (Food Anim Pract) 1988,4:253

Sakai T, Hayakawa T, Hamakawa M, Ogura K, Kubo S. Therapeutic effects of simultaneous use of glucose and insulin in ketotic dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1993,76:109

Shpigel NY, Chen R, Avidar Y, Bogin E. Use of corticosteroids alone or combined with glucose to treat ketosis in dairy cows. J am vet med Assoc 1996,208:1702

Rüssel A. Nutrition of the pregnant ewe. In Pract 1985,7:23

Menzies, P.I. Reproductive health management problems. In: Youngquist RS, Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997,643

Himonas C, Fthenakis GC, Papadopoulos E. Effects of moxidectin treatment on milk yield of ewes and on growth of lambs. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium for Sheep Veterinarians, 1997 (Annidale, Australia), 431


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 N PANOUSIS, C BROZOS, GC FTHENAKIS, C KARATZIAS

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.