| More

Investigation of milk urea nitrogen concentration and factors affecting its variation in Greek Holstein herds

Views: 107 Downloads: 92
N. SIACHOS (Ν. ΣΙΑΧΟΣ), N. PANOUSIS (Ν. ΠΑΝΟΥΣΗΣ), G. ARSENOS (Γ. ΑΡΣΕΝΟΣ), G. E. VALERGAKIS (Γ.Ε. ΒΑΛΕΡΓΑΚΗΣ)
N. SIACHOS (Ν. ΣΙΑΧΟΣ), N. PANOUSIS (Ν. ΠΑΝΟΥΣΗΣ), G. ARSENOS (Γ. ΑΡΣΕΝΟΣ), G. E. VALERGAKIS (Γ.Ε. ΒΑΛΕΡΓΑΚΗΣ)

Abstract


Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is an important tool in dairy cow nutrition, as it reflects the amount of nitrogen in the diet which is not used for production. The objective of this study was to evaluate MUN values in Greek dairy herds, for the first time, and to investigate the source of its possible variation. For this purpose, a dataset of 23,266 milk records from 24 Holstein herds in the region of Thessaly (Greece) was used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and a multiple regression model were used for statistical analysis. Significant differences were observed among farms (P<0.05). Mean MUN concentration was 15.54 mg/dL. More than 90% of the measurements were above the upper limit of reference herd target-values. In contrast with previous observations, lower MUN values (P<0.05) were observed during the summer and autumn. A positive relationship between milk yield and MUN was observed, but only up to MUN values of 16 mg/dL. Milk fat content and fat/protein ratio were negatively related to MUN, while cows with higher protein content had lower MUN values (P<0.05). Most milk traits and sampling month explained only 25.8% of the variation in MUN concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, MUN values in Greek dairy farms were greater than target-values suggested for most herds, indicating systematic nutritional errors that could affect health and reproductive performance of dairy cows.


Keywords


milk urea nitrogen; milk yield; milk composition; dairy cows; Greek herds

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguilar M, Hanigan MD, Tucker HA, Jones BL, Garbade SK, McGilliard ML, Stallings CC, Knowlton KF, James RE (2012) Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 95:7261-7268.

Arunvipas P, Dohoo IR, Vanleeuwen JA, Keefe GP (2003) The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Prev Vet Med 59:83-93.

Bastin C, Laloux L, Gillon A, Miglior F, Soyeurt H, Hammami H, Bertozzi C, Gengler N (2009) Modeling milk urea of Walloon dairy cows in management perspectives. J Dairy Sci 92:3529-3540.

Baker LD, Ferguson JD (1993) Milk urea nitrogen as a metabolic indicator of protein feeding efficiency in dairy farms. In: Proceedings of 26th Annual Convention American association of Bovine Practitioners, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Albuquerque NM, pp 165-166.

Broderick GA, Clayton MK (1997) A statistical evaluation of animal and nutritional factors influencing concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. J Dairy Sci 80:2964-2971.

Butler WR (1998) Effect of protein nutrition on ovarian and uterine physiology in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 81:2533-2539.

Butler WR (2000) Nutritional interactions with reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 60/61:449-457.

Carlsson J, Bergstrom J, Pehrson B (1995) Variations with breed, age, season, yield, stage of lactation, and herd in the concentration of urea in bulk milk and individual cow’s milk. Acta Vet Scand 36:245-254.

Clark JH, Spires HR, Davis CK (1978) Uptake and metabolism of nitrogenous components by the lactating mammary gland. Federation Proceedings 37:1233.

Doska MC, Ferreira da Silva DF, Horst JA, Valloto AA, Junior PR, de Almeida R (2012) Sources of variation in milk urea nitrogen in Paraná dairy cows. Rev Bras Zootec 41(n.3):692-697.

Elrod CC, Butler WR (1993) Reduction of fertility and alteration of uterine pH in heifers fed excess ruminally degradable protein. J Anim Sci 71:694.

Fatehi F, Zali A, Honarvar M, Dehghan-banadaky M, Young AJ, Ghiasvand M, Eftekhari M (2012) Review of the relationship between milk urea nitrogen and days in milk, parity, and monthly temperature mean in Iranian Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 95:5156-5163.

Ferguson JD, Blanchard T, Galligan DT, Hoshall DC, Chalupa W (1988) Infertility in dairy cattle fed a high percentage of protein degradable in the rumen. J Am Vet Med Assoc 192(5):659-661.

Gaines WL (1928) An efficiency formula for dairy cows. Science, Volume 67, Issue 1735: 353-354.

Godden SM, Lissemore KD, Kelton DF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, Lumsden JH (2001a) Factors associated with milk urea nitrogen concentrations in Ontario dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 84:107-114.

Godden SM, Lissemore KD, Kelton DF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, Lumsden JH (2001b) Relationships between milk urea concentrations and nutritional management, production, and economic values in Ontario dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 84:1128-1139.

Gustafsson AH, Palmquist DL (1993) Diurnal variation of rumen ammonia, serum urea, and milk urea in dairy cows at high and low yields. J Dairy Sci 76:475-484.

Hof G, Vervoorn MD, Lenaers PJ, Tamminga S (1997) Milk urea nitrogen as a tool to monitor the protein nutrition of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 80:3333-3340.

Hojman D, Gips M, Ezra E (2005) Association between live body weight and milk urea concentration in holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 88:580-584.

Hojman D, Kroll O, Adin G, Gips M, Hanochi B, Ezra E (2004) Relationship between milk urea and production, nutrition and fertility traits in Israeli dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 87:1001-1011.

Hristov AN, Ropp JK (2003) Effect of dietary carbohydrate composition and availability on utilization of ruminal ammonia nitrogen for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 86:2416-2427.

Johnson RG, Young AJ (2003) The association between milk urea nitrogen and DHI production variables in western commercial dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 86:3008-3015.

Jonker JS, Kohn RA, Erdman RA (1998) Using milk urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and utilization efficiency in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 81:2681-2692.

Jordan ER, Chapman TE, Holtan DW, Swanson LV (1983) Relationship of dietary crude protein to composition of uterine secretions and blood in high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 66:1854.

Jordan ER, Swanson LV (1979) Serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone in dairy cattle fed varying levels of crude protein. J Anim Sci 48:1154.

Kamiya M, Kamiya Y, Tanaka M, Shioya S (2006) Effects of high ambient temperature and restricted feed intake on urinary and plasma 3-methylhistidine in lactating holstein cows. J Anim Sci 77:201-207.

Kohn RA, Kalscheur KF Russek-Cohen E (2002) Evaluation of models to estimate urinary nitrogen and expected milk urea nitrogen. J Dairy Sci 85:227-233.

Leroy JL, Van Soom A, Opsomer G, Goovaerts IG, Bols PE (2008) Reduced fertility in high-yielding dairy cows: are the oocyte and embryo in danger? Part II. Mechanisms linking nutrition and reduced oocyte and embryo quality in high - yielding dairy cows. Reprod Domest Anim 43(5):623-32.

Licata E (1985) Subclinical mastitis and urea determination in cows’ milk. Obiettivi e Doc-Vet 6:65-67.

Lucy M (2001) Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end? J Dairy Sci 84:1277-1293.

Melendez P, Donovan A, Hernandez J (2000) Milk urea nitrogen and infertility in Florida Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 83:459-463.

Meyer PM, Machado PF, Coldebella A, Cassoli LD, Coelho KO, Mazza Rodrigues PH (2012) Validation of models for predicting milk urea nitrogen concentrations, estimating dry matter intake by the NRC (2001). Rev Bras Zootec 41(n.5):1271-1277.

Moore DA, Varga G (1996) BUN and MUN: urea nitrogen testing in dairy cattle. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 18:712-720.

National Research Council (1971) A guide to environmental research on animals. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.

Nousiainen J, Shingfield KJ, Huhtanen P (2004) Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a diagnostic of protein feeding. J Dairy Sci 87:386-398.

Oltner R, Emanuelson M, Wiktorsson H (1985) Urea concentrations in milk in relation to milk yield, live weight, lactation number and amount and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Livest Prod Sci 12:47-57.

Rajala-Schultz PJ, Saville WJA (2003) Source of variation in milk urea nitrogen in Ohio dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 86:1653-1661.

Rhoads ML, Bilby TR, Rhoads RP, Baumgard LH (2008) Effects of nutrient metabolism and excess protein catabolism on dairy cow fertility. In: Proceedings of 24th Annual Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference. Arizona: Department of Animal Sciences-The University of Arizona.

Rzewuska K, Strabel T (2013) Effects of some non-genetic factors on concentration of urea in milk in Polish Holstein-Fresian cows. J Anim Feed Sci 22:197-203.

Schneider PL, Beede DK, Wilcox CJ (1988) Nycterohemeral patterns of acid-base status, mineral concentrations and digestive function of lactating cows in natural or chamber heat stress environments. J Anim Sci 66:112-125.

Sonderman JP, Larson LL (1989) Effect of dietary protein and exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone on circulating progesterone concentrations and performance of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 72:2179.

Staples CR, Garcia-Bojalil CM, Oldick BS, Thatcher WW, Risco CA (1993) Protein intake and reproductive performance of dairy cows: a review, a suggested mechanism, and blood and milk urea measurements. In: Proceedings of 4th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp 37-51, Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

Staples CR, Thatcher WW, Garcia-Bojalil CM, Lucy MC (1992) Nutritional influences on reproductive function. Van Horn; HH; Wilcox, CJ (eds). Large Dairy Herd Management, 382-392.

Staples CR, Thatcher WW (2001) Nutrient influences on reproduction of dairy cows. In: Proceedings of Mid-south Ruminant Nutrition Conference, pp 21-35.

Visek WJ (1984) Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 67:481-498.

Wattiaux MA, Nordheim EV, Crump P (2005) Statistical evaluation of factors and interactions affecting Dairy Herd Improvement milk urea nitrogen in commercial Midwest dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 88:3020-3035.

Wheelock JB, Rhoads RP, VanBaale MJ, Sanders SR, Baumgard LH (2010) Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 93:644-655.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 N SIACHOS, N PANOUSIS, G ARSENOS, GE VALERGAKIS

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.