| More

Effect of sow diets supplementation with chelated trace minerals on their reproductive performance

Views: 939 Downloads: 351


Trace minerals are constituents of proteins and enzymes that are involved in a variety of metabolic processes, having functional implications in growth, development, reproduction and health. Chelated minerals, are minerals bound to organic ligands, usually amino acids, providing higher levels of bioavailability compared to conventional inorganic mineral sources. In the present study, we investigated the effect of partial substitution of inorganic mineral sources with chelated minerals in sows’ diets, on three important reproductive parameters, the number of liveborn and weaned piglets and the wean-to-first service interval, in three Greek farrow-to-finish herds. Before initiation of the study the sows were on diets supplemented with 15 mg/kg feed Cu (from CuSO4), 125 mg/kg Zn (from ZnO) and 40 mg/kg Mn (from MnO). After exiting the farrowing facilities they were offered diets in which 93.3%, 36.0% and 62.5% of the supplemented Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively, originated from commercially available chelated minerals. For the last farrowing on inorganic minerals diet and the subsequent one or two (for 35.0% and 65.0% of the studied sows, respectively) on chelated minerals, each sow’s reproductive data (total number of parities, number of liveborn and weaned piglets and wean-to-first service interval) were recorded. The reproductive parameters, before and after the supplementation with chelated minerals, were compared in two mixed-effect linear regression models, for the number of liveborn and weaned piglets, and in a zero inflated negative binomial model for the weaning-to-first service interval. There was an improvement of the mean number of liveborn piglets after partial substitution of inorganic source of minerals with chelated minerals by almost half a piglet (P=0.015), whereas there was no effect on the total number of weaned piglets (P=0.15) and the wean-to-first service interval (P=0.65). The increase in the number of liveborn piglets may be directly attributed to improved embryo survival due to increased bioavailability of the organic minerals or indirectly to the beneficial effect of chelated minerals on sows’ hoof health, locomotor ability, feed intake and body condition.


sows; chelated or organic minerals; reproductive performance

Full Text:



Anil SS (2011). Epidemiology of lameness in breeding female pigs. In dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the graduate School of the University of Minesota, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, pp 69-98. Available at: http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/104606/


Anil SS, Anil L, Deen J, Baidoo SK, Walker RD (2007). Factors associated with claw lesions in gestating sows. J Swine Health Prod 15:78–83.

Anil SS, Deen J, Anil L, Baidoo SK, Wilson ME, Ward TL (2009). Evaluation of the supplementation of complexed trace minerals on the number of claw lesions in breeding sows. Manipulating Pig Production XII, Twelfth Biennial Conference of the

Australasian Pig Science Association.

Ashmead HD (1993).Comparative intestinal absorption and subsequent metabolism of metal amino acid chelates and inorganic metal salts. In: (ed: Ashmead HD) The roles acid chelates in animal nutrition. Noyes Publishers, New Jersey pp. 306–319.

Carrel M, Voss P, Streatfield PK, Yunus M, Emch M (2010). Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis. Environmental Health 9, 13.

Close WH (2003). Trace mineral nutrition of pigs revisited: meeting production and environmental objectives. Adv Anim Nutr Australia 14: 133-142.

Cousins RJ (1996).Zinc. in Present Knowledge in Nutrition.7th ed. E. E. Ziegler and L. J. Filer, Jr., ed. ILSI Press, Washington, DC pp. 293–306.

Dewey CE, Friendship RM, Wilson MR (1993). Clinical and postmortem examination of sows culled for lameness. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 34, 555–6.

Engblom L, Lundeheim N, Strandberg E, Schneider MdP, Dalin AM, Andersson K (2008). Factors affecting length of productive life in Swedish commercial sows. J Anim Sci 86:432–441.

Enokida M, Sasaki Y, Hoshino Y, Saito H, Koketsu Y (2011). Claw lesions in lactating sows on commercial farms were associated with postural behavior but not with suboptimal reproductive performance or culling risk. Livestock Science 136, 256–261.

Fairweather-Tait SJ (1996). Bioavailability of dietary minerals. Biochemical Society Transactions 24: 775–780.

Fitzgerald RF, Stalder KJ, Karriker LA, Sadler LJ, Hill HT, Kaisand J, Johnson AK (2012). The effect of hoof abnormalities on sow behavior and performance. Livestock Science 145, 230–238.

Hostetler CE, Cronath JD, Becker WC, Mirando MA (2000). Dietary supplementation of proteinated trace minerals (OPTiMIN) in sow and replacement gilts increases mineral concentrations in reproductive tissues. In Proceedings of 14th International Congress of Animal Reproduction 1:272.

Hostetler CE and Mirando MA (1998). Dietary supplementation of proteinated trace minerals influences reproductive and growth performance of gilts. J Anim Sci 76(Suppl. 1):274 (Abstr.)

Long J, Freese J (2006). 8.6 Zero inflated count models. Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata, 2nd ed. College Station, Stata Press, Texas, 396−409.

Lord D, Washington S, Ivan JN (2007):.Further notes on the application of zero inflated models in highway safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 53−57.

Mahan DC (1990). Mineral nutrition of the sow: a review. J Anim Sci 68: 573–582.

Mahan DC, Newton EA (1995).Effect of initial body weight on macro- and micro-mineral composition over a three-parity period using a high-producing sow genotype. J Anim Sci 73: 151-158.

Mirando, MA, Peters DN, Hostetler CE, Becker WC,Whiteaker SS, and Rompala RE (1993). Dietary supplementation of proteinated trace minerals influences reproductive performance of sows. J Anim Sci 74(Suppl. 1):180. (Abstr.)

Mulling C, Bragulla H, Reese S, Budras KD, Steinberg W (1999). How structures in bovine hoof epidermis are influenced by nutritional factors. Anat Hist Embryol 28:103–108.

Mülling C (2000).The use of nutritional factors in prevention of claw diseases-Biotin as an example for nutritional influences conformation and quality of hoof horn. In Proceedings of 11th International Symposium on Disorders of the Ruminant Digit. Mortellaro CM, DeVecchis L, and Brizzi A, eds. Parma, Italy. Pages 78–80.

National Research Council (NRC) 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10thedn., National Academy Press, Washington, USA.

Peters, JC and Mahan DC (2008). Effects of dietary organic and inorganic trace minerals at various levels fed to reproducing sow over six parities on reproductive performance. J Anim Sci 86:2247-2260.

Pluym L, Nuffel A Van, Dewulf J, Cools A, Vangroenweghe F, Hoorebeke S Van, Maes D (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of claw lesions and lameness in pregnant sows in two types of group housing. Veterinarni Medicina 56, 101–109.

Pluym LM, Van Nuffel A, Van Weyenberg S, Maes D (2013). Prevalence of lameness and claw lesions during different stages in the reproductive cycle of sows and the impact on reproduction results. Animal : An International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 7, 1174–1181.

Power R, Horgan K (2000). Biological chemistry and absorption of inorganic and organic trace minerals.In: (eds: Lyons TP, Jacques KA) Biotechnology in the feed industry, Proceedings of Alltech’s 16th Annual Symposium, Nottingham University Press, UK, pp. 277–292.

Smart M andCymbaluk NF (1999).Role of nutritional supplements in bovine lameness in Lameness in Cattle.3rd ed. P. R. Greenoughand A. D. Weaver, ed. W. B. Sanders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Van Riet MMJ, Millet S, Aluwé M, Janssens GP J (2013). Impact of nutrition on lameness and claw health in sows. Livestock Science 156(1-3):24–35.

Whittemore CT, Close WH, Hazzledine MJ (2002).The need for nutrient requirement standards for pigs. Pig News Inf23: 67-74.

Zhao J, Harrell R, Greiner L, Allee G, Knight C (2012). Chelated trace minerals support sow reproduction. Available at: http://www.trouwnutritionusa.com/docs/livestock---industry-articles/ctm_support_sow_reproduction.pdf. Accessed May 31st , 2015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.