Applications of ultrasonography in cattle reproduction


Ultrasonography is becoming a useful diagnostic toolin the field of cattle pathophysiology, aiding to meet the demands of the expanding cattle breeding. Transrectal ultrasonography is a rapid, reliable and safe technique for both the animal and the operator. With the use of ultrasonography in research, the hypothesis concerning the wave - like pattern of follicular growth has been confirmed. In addition it has been proved that follicular growth, development and regression continue during early pregnancy. The application of ultrasonographic techniques in concert with modern biotechnology, boosted the production of embryos from genetically superior cows and prepubertal heifers and indirectly solved the problem of infertility in valuable animals. In clinical practice, the use of ultrasonography for early pregnancy diagnosis and for diagnosis of pathologic conditions which lead to prolonged postpartum anoestrous, makes a considerable contribution to the reduction of calving interval. In this review basic physical principles of ultrasonography are described and selected applications in the field of cow reproduction are discussed.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Ginther, O.J. Ultrasonic imaging and animal reproduction. Cross Plains, WI, Equiservices Publishing ( 1995)
Lindahl IL. Detection of pregnancy in sheep by means of ultrasound. Nature 1966, 212:642-643.
Palmer E, Driancourt MA. Use of ultrasonic echography in equine gynecology. Theriogenology 198Ü 13: 203-209.
Kahn, W. Veterinary reproductive ultrasonography. Mosby Wolf, (1994)
Dik KJ. Diagnostic ultrasound in other areas of veterinary medicine In: Taverne MM, Willemse AH (eds) Diagnostic ultrasound and animal reproduction. 1989,111-114, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Spicer LJ, Echternkamp SE. Ovarian follicular growth, function and turnover in cattle: a review. J. Anim. Sci 1986: 62:428-451.
Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Follicular populations during the estrus cycle in heifers. I. Influence of the day. Anim. Reprod Sci. 1987,14:165-176.
Sirois J, Fortune JE. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the estrus cycle in heifers monitored by real-time ultrasonography. Biol. Reprod 1988, 39:308-317.
Knopf L, Kastelic JP, Schallenberger E, Ginther OJ. Ovarian follicular dynamics in heifers: Test of two wave hypothesis by ultrasonocally monitoring individual follicles. Dornest Anim. Endocrinol 1989, 6: 111-Π9.
Savio JD, Keenan L, Boland MP, Roche JF. Pattern of growth of dominant follicle during the oestrus cycle in heifers. J Reprod Fertil. 1988,83:663-671
Ginther OJ, Kastelic JP, and Knopf L. Composition and characteristics of follicular waves during the bovine estrous cycle. Anim. Repr. Sci. 1989,20:187-200
Adams GP, Matteri RL, Kastelic JP, Ko JCH., Ginther OJ. Association between surges of follicle stimulating hormone and emergence of follicular wave in heifers. J Reprod Fert. 1992,94:177-188.
Ginther OJ, Knopf L, Kastelic JP. Ovarian follicular dynamics in heifers during early pregnancy. Biol. Reprod. 1989,41:247- 254.
Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Ovarian follicular populations during early pregnancy in heifers. Theriogenology, 1986, 26:649-659.
Taylor C, Rajamahedran R.. Follicular dynamics and corpus luteum growth and function in pregnant versus non pregnant dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1991, 74:115-123.
Peters AR, Ball PJH. Reproduction in cattle. Backwell science, 2nd edition ( 1995)
Savio JD, Boland M, Hymes N, Roche JF. Resumption of follicular activity in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. J. Reprod Fertil, 1990,88:569-576.
Savio DJ, Bongers H, Drost M, Lucy MC, Thatcher WW. Follicular dynamics and superovulatory response in Holstein cows treated with FSH-P in different endocrine states. Theriogenology, 1991, 35:915-929.
Robertson L, Cationi JC, Shand RI, Jeffcoate I A. A critical evaluation of ultrasonic monitoring of superovulation in cattle. Br. Veter. J. 1993,149:477-484.
Larsson B. Determination of ovulation by ultrasound examination and its relation to LH peak in heifers. J Vet Med [A]. 1987,34:749-754.
Rajamahedran R, Robinson J, Desbottes S. The use of ultrasonography to determine the onset of ovulation in dairy cows. Proc. Annu. Meet West. Sec. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 1988, 39:309-311.
Omran SN, Ayllife TR, Boyd JS. Preliminary observations of bovine ovarian structures using B-mode real time ultrasound. Vet Ree. 1988, 122:465-466.
Kastelic JR, Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Ultrasonic morphology of corpora lutea and central cavities during the estrus cycle and earlv pregnancy in heifers. Theriogenology, 1990,34:487-498.
Pieterse MC, Taverne MAM, Kruip AM, Willemse AH. Detection of corpora lutea and follicles in cows: a comparisopn of transvaginal ultrasonography and rectal palpation. Vet. Ree. 1990,126:552-554.
Chaffaux S, Valon F, Martinez J. Evoluation de Limage echographique du produit de conception chez la vache. Bull Acad VetFr. 1982,55:213-221.
Curran S, Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Ultrasonic appearence of the bovine conceptus from days 10 through 20. J Am Med Vet Assoc. 1986,189:1289-1294
Curran S, Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Ultrasonic appearence of the bovine conceptus from 10 through 60 days. J Am Med Vet Assoc. 1986,189:1295-1302.
Pierson RA, Ginther OJ. Ultrasonography for detection of pregnancy and study of embryonic development in heifers. Theriogenology, 1984, 22:225-233.
Kastelic JP, Curran S, Ginther OJ. Accuracy of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis on days 10 to 22 in heifers. Theriogenology, 1989,31:813-820.
Badtram GA, Gaines JD, Thomas CB, Bosu WTK. Factors influencing the accuracy of early pregnancy detection in cattle by real time ultrasound scanning of the uterus.
Theriogenology, 1991,35:1153-1167.
Hanzen C, Delsaux B. Use of transrectal B-mode ultrasound imaging in bovine pregnancy diagnosis. Vet Ree 1987, 121:200-202.
Boyd JS, Omran SN, Ayliffe TR. Use of high frequency transducer with real time B- mode ultrasound scanning to indetify early pregnancy in cows. Vet Ree 1988,123: 8-11.
Kahn W. Sonographic imaging of the bovine fetus. Theriogenology, 33:385-396 (1990)
Curran S. Fetal sex determination in cattle and horses by ultrasonography. Theriogenology, 1992,3 7:17-21.
Curran S, Kastelic JP, Ginther OJ. Determining sex of the bovine fetus by ultrasonic assessment of the relative location of the genital tubercle. Anim Repr Sci 1989,19:217- 227
Makondo K, Amiridis GS, Jeffcoate IA, O'Shaughnessy PJ, Boyd JS, Paterson C, Robertson L. Use of polymerase chain reaction to sex the bovine fetus using cells recovered by ultrasound guided fetal fluid aspiration. Anim Rep. Sci Υπο Δημοσίευση.
Pieterse MC, Kappen ΚΑ, Kruip ThAM, Taverne MAM. Aspiration of bovine oocytes during transvaginal ultrasound scanning of the ovaries. Theriogenology, 1988, 30: 751-762.
Scott CA, Robertson L, de Moura RTD, Paterson C, Boyd JS. Techical aspects of transvaginal ultrasound guided follicular aspiration in cows Vet Ree. 1994.134:440443.
Bungartz L, Lucas- Hahn A, Rath D, and Niemman H. Collection of oocytes from cattle via follicular aspiration aided by ultrasound with or without gonadotrophin pretreatment and in different reproductive stages. Theriogenology, 1995,43: 667-675.
Pieterse MC, Vos PLAM, Kruip ThAM, Wurih YA, Beneden TH, Willemse AH, Taverne MAM. Transvaginal ultrasound guided follicular aspiration of bovine oocytes. Theriogenology 1991,35:857-862.
Pieterse MC, Vos PLAM, Kruip ThAM, Willemse AH, Taverne MAM. Characteristics of bovine estrus cycle during repeated transvaginal ultrasound guided puncturing of follicles for ovum pick-up. Theriogenology, 1991,35:401-413
Kruip ThAM, Pieterse MC, van Beneden TH, Vos PLAM, Wurth YA, Taverne MAM. A new method for bovine embryo production: a potential alternative to superowlation Vet Ree. 1991,128:208-210.
Looney CR, Lindsey BR, Gonseth CL., Johnson DL. Commercial aspects of oocytes retrieval and in vitro fertilization (IVF) for embryo production in problem cows. Theriogenology 1994,41,67-72.
Looney CR, Damiani Ρ, Lindsey BR, Long CR, Gonseth CL, Johnson DL, Duby RT. Use of prepubertal heifers as oocyte donors for IVF: Effect of age and gonadotrophin treatment. Theriogenology, 1995, 43: 269.
Meintjes M, Bellow MS, Broussard JR, Paul JB, Godke RA. Transvaginal aspiration of bovine oocytes from hormone treated pregnant cattle for IVF. Theriogenology, 1993,39:299
Amiridis .GS. Effects of follicular aspiration on the bovine oestrous cycle. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Glasgow, ( 1996) 47. Amiridis GS, Robertson L, Paterson C, Boyd JS, O'Shaughnessy PJ, Jeffcoate IA. Effects of dominant follicle aspiration on FSH, LH, Oestradiol and progesterone in the cow. J Phys. Pharmac. 1996,47, supp.2: 111.
Beai WE, Edwards RB, Kearnan JM. Use of B-mode, linear array ultrasonography for evaluating the technique of bovine artificial insemination. J. Dairy Sci. 1989, 72:2198-2202.
Most read articles by the same author(s)