| More

Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in Serbian milk and its impact on legislative

Views: 606 Downloads: 398
I. Jajić, D. Glamočić, S. Krstović, M. Polovinski Horvatović
I. Jajić, D. Glamočić, S. Krstović, M. Polovinski Horvatović


Serbia is a country which has repeatedly changed aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) legislation in milk. As a country that clearly has aspiration toward the EU membership, Serbia implemented the EU legislation for this mycotoxin at level of 0.050 μg/kg. However, due to high occurrence of AFM1 in milk, legislation has been changed several times in the past few years as an effort to preserve domestic milk production. This paper presents the results of four years monitoring of different milk types taken from Serbian market and from Serbian farmers. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography on ODS Hypersil column with fluorescence detector (FLD), after cleanup on immunoaffinity column. Limit of quantification was 0.005 μg/kg, while obtained mean value for trueness was 95.1%, respectively. Average AFM1 levels in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 0.205, 0.127, 0.238. and 0.269 μg/kg, respectively. Overall occurrence of AFM1 was 80.9%, with the average content of 0.216 μg/kg (ranged from 0.005 to 5.078 μg/kg). According to this, 49.1% of samples were above the EU regulation. In years to come, Serbia will have a challenge to produce the milk that is in compliance with the permitted level of AFM1. Especially, when it is known that in not so distant future, an increase in temperature as a result of the certain climate changes is expected.


aflatoxin M1; high-performance liquid chromatography; legislation; milk; Serbia

Full Text:



Ali N, Hashim NH, Yoshizawa T. (1999). Evaluation and application of a simple and rapid method for the analysis of aflatoxins in commercial foods from Malaysia and the Philipines. Food Addit Contam, 16:273–280.

Amendment on Serbian regulation 2011 “Maximum allowed contents of contaminants in food and feed”. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2013, 20.

Amendment on Serbian regulation 2011 “Maximum allowed contents of contaminants in food and feed”. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2014, 39.

Amendment on Serbian regulation 2011 “Maximum allowed contents of contaminants in food and feed”. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2014, 72.

Amendment on Serbian regulation 2011 “Maximum allowed contents of contaminants in food and feed”. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2015, 84.

Ayar A, Sert D, Con AH: A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin in raw milk due to feeds. J Food Saf 2007, 27:199-207. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4565.2007.00072.x

Battilani, P., P. Toscano, H. J. Van der Fels-Klerx, A. Moretti, M. Camardo Leggieri, C. Brera, A. Rortais, T. Goumperis, and T. Robinson. (2016). Aflatoxin B1 Contamination in Maize in Europe Increases due to Climate Change. Scientific Reports 6 (April): 24328.

Bilandžić N, Božić Đ, Đokić M, Sedak M, Solomun Kolanović B, Varenina I, Tanković S, Cvetnić Ž. (2014). Seasonal effect on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw and UHT milk from Croatia. Food Control, 40:260-264.

Bilandžić N, Varenina I, Solomun B. (2010). Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in Croatia. Food Control 2010, 21:1279-1281.

Britzi, M., Friedman, S., Miron, J., Solomon, R., Cuneah, O., Shimshoni, J. A., Soback, S., Ashkenazi, R., Armer, S., Shlosberg, A. (2013). Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins, 5(1), 173–183.

Chen CY, Li WJ, Peng KY. (2005). Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Powder Using High-Flow Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem, 53:8474-8480.

Commission Decision of 12 August 2002 implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results. Off J Eur Union 2002, L221:8-36.

Commission Directive 100/2003 of 31 October 2003 amending Annex I to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed. Off J Eur Union 2003, L285:33-37.

Commission Regulation 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union 2006, L364:5-24.

EFSA. (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the Commission related to Aflatoxin B1 as undesirable substance in animal feed, The EFSA Journal 39: 1-27.

Gimeno A. (2004). Aflatoxina M1 no leite. Riscos para a saúde pública, prevenção e controlo. Alimentação Animal (Revista de la Associação Portuguesa dos Industriais de Alimentos Compostos para Animais (IACA)), 49:32-44.

Herzallah SM. (2009). Determination of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, meat and meat products using HPLC fluorescent and UV detectors. Food Chem, 114(3):1141-1146.

Jajić I, Perišić B, Krstović S, Kos J: Aflatoxins – maize safety economy challenge in 2012. Contemporary Agriculture 2013, 62(3-4):133-138.

Jakšić S, Abramović B, Prunić B, Mihaljev Ž, Živkov-Baloš M, Jajić I, Despotović V, Bjelica L. (2011). Incidence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in cereal food from Serbian market. J Agroaliment Proc Technol, 17(2):108-112.

Janković VV, Vukojević JB, Lakicević BM, Mitrović RR, Vuković D. (2009). Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk. Proc Nat Sci Matica Srpska Novi Sad, 117:63-68.

Kokić B, Čabarkapa I, Lević J, Mandić A, Matić J, Ivanov D. (2009). Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina. Proc Nat Sci Matica Srpska Novi Sad, 117:87-96.

Kos J, Lević J, Ðuragić O, Kokić B, Miladinović I. (2014). Occurrence and estimation of aflatoxin M1 exposure in milk in Serbia. Food Control, 38:41-46.

Kos J, Mastilović J, Hajnal JE, Sarić B. (2013). Natural occurrenceof aflatoxins in maize harvested in Serbia during 2009-2012. Food Control, 34:31-34.

Lević J, Ðuragić O, Kos J, Varga J, Bagi F. (2013). The occurrence of aflatoxins in Serbia - from feed to food. The second North and East European Congress on Food, Kiev, Ukraine, May 26 – 29, 2013, 77.

Lizárraga-Paulín EG, Moreno-Martínez E, Miranda-Castro SP. (2011). Aflatoxins and their impact on human and animal health: An emerging problem. In: Aflatoxins - Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Europe; 255-282.

Maximum allowed contents of contaminants in food and feed. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2011, 28.

Nachtmann C., Gallina S., Rastelli M., Ferro G.L., Decastelli L.(2007). Regional monitoring plan regarding the presence of aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized and UHT milk in Italy. Food Control, 18(6): 623-629.

Özdemir M. (2007). Determination of aflatoxin M1 levels in goat milk consumed in Kilis province. Ankara Univ Vet Fak, 54:99-103.

Polovinski-Horvatović M, Jurić V, Glamočić D. (2010). Two-year study of incidence of aflatoxin M1 in milk in the region of Serbia. Biotechnol Anim Husb, 25(5-6):713-718.

Regulations on the quality of animal feed. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2014, 27.

Regulations on the quality of animal feed. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 2010, 4.

Richard JL, Cole RJ, Archibald SO. (1989). Mycotoxins: economic and health risks. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Task Force Report 116.

Škrbić B, Živančev J, Antić I, Godula M. (2014). Levels of aflatoxin M1 in different types of milk collected in Serbia: Assessment of human and animal exposure. Food Control, 40:113-119.

Torović L. (2015). Aflatoxin M1 in processed milk and infant formulae and corresponding exposure of adult population in Serbia in 2013–2014. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill, 8(4):235–244.

Van Egmond HP, Jonker MA. (2004). Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Van Egmond HP: Introduction, In: Mycotoxins in dairy products. London (United Kingdom) and New York (United States of America): Elsevier Applied Science; 1989, 1-9.

Visciano, P., Schirone, M., Olivastri, A.M.A., Tofalo, R., Perpetuini, G., Suzzi, G. (2015). A one-year survey on aflatoxin M1 in raw milk. Italian Journal of Food Science, 27(2): 271-276.

Vuković G, Starović M, Pavlović S, Bursić V, Jajić I, Pantić-Palibrk V. (2013). Levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk on Serbian market. 6th International Symposium on Recent advances in food analysis, Book of abstracts, Prague, Czech Republic, November 5 – 8, 352.

Williams JH, Phillips TD, Jolly PE, Stiles JK, Jolly CM, Aggarwal D. (2004). Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. Am J Clin, 80(5):1106–1122.

Zain ME. (2011). Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. J Saudi Chem Soc, 15:129-144.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.