| More

Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle as treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Oreochromis niloticus

Views: 1167 Downloads: 456


Nanoproducts became widely used materials all over the world. Antimicrobial properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle (NP) were examined against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) bacteria and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 20 μg/ml of TiO2NP. In addition, the treatment efficacy of TiO2NP was examined in Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) infected with A. hydrophila. One hundred and eighty fish (54±2.4 g b.w.) were divided into six groups (G). O. niloticus in G1, G2 and G3 were fed for 30 days with 0, 20 and 100 μg/g b.w. TiO2NP, respectively, while G4, G5 and G6 were i.p. injected with 0.2 ml distal water, 20 and 100 μg/g b.w. TiO2NP, respectively, for three times with ten days of interval. The blood parameters as well as some of the biochemical parameters of O. niloticus that received high dosage of TiO2NP were significantly affected regardless to the administration route. Elevation of the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and metallothionine (MT) were recorded with the high dosage. Furthermore, O. niloticus subjected to high dosage of TiO2NP had the lower survival rate (SR%) especially with the injection route (50%). On the other hand, no significant changes were demonstrated with the perceived TiO2NP MIC. The mortality rate (MR%) of challenged O. niloticus against A. hydrophila was decreased in case of TiO2NP MIC exposure, as G2 and G5 revealed 20 and 30%, respectively. Therefore, the 20 μg/g b.w. of TiO2NP could safely protect O. niloticus against A. hydrophila infection since no health hazards was observed. Meanwhile, health status of O. niloticus was adversely affected with high dosage of TiO2NP irrespective to the route of administration.


TiO2; nanoparticles; Oreochromis niloticus Aeromonas hydrophila; antioxidant

Full Text:



Alarifi S, Ali, D, Al-Doaiss, AA, Ali, BA, Ahmed M, Al-Khedhairy AA (2013) Histologic and apoptotic changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the livers of rats. International Journal of Nanomedicine 8, 3937–43.

Angka SL (1990) The pathology of the walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (L.), infected intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila. Asian Fish. Sciences 3, 343-51.

Anonymous (2007) AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia. American VeterinaryMedical Association, 36 p. Available at: http//:www.avma.org/issues/animal welfare/euthanasia. Pdf.

Austin B, Austin D (2012) Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Diseases of Farmedand Wild Fish.4th Ed. ISBN 978-1-4020-6068-7 Springer Dordrecht Berlin Heidelberg New York.

Balbi T, Smerilli A, Fabbri R, Ciacci C, Montagna M, Grasselli E, Brunelli A, Pojana G, Marcomini A, Gallo G (2014) Co-exposure to n-TiO2 and Cd2 results in interactive effects on biomarker responses but not in increased toxicity in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sciences Total Environment 493(7), 355-64.

Banaee M, Shahafve S, Tahery S, Haghi BN, Vaziriyan M (2016). Sublethal toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758) under visible light and dark conditions. International journal of aquatic biology, 4(6), 370-7.

Bar-Ilan O, Chuang CC, Schwahn DJ, Yang S, Joshi S, Pedersen JA, Hamers RJ, Peterson RE, Heideman W (2013) TiO2 nanoparticle exposure and illumination during zebrafish development: mortality at parts per billion concentrations. Environment Sciences and technology 47(9),4726-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es304514r.

Barmo C, Ciacci C, Canonico B, Fabbri R, Cortese K, Balbi T, Marcomini A, Pojana G, Gallo G, Canesi L (2013) In vivo effects of n-TiO2 on digestive gland and immune function of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis, Aquatic toxicology 132-133(2), 9-18.

Boijink, CL, Brandao, DA, Vargas, AC, Costa, MM, Renosto, AV (2001) Inoculação de suspensão bacteriana de Plesiomonas shigelloides em jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (teleostei: pimelodidae). Ciência Rural, 31 (3), 497-501.

Bour A, Mouchet F, Silvestre J, Gauthier L, Pinelli E (2015) Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: a review. Journal of Hazard materials, 283, 764-77.

Boyle D, Al-Bairuty, GA, Ramsden CS, Sloman KA, Henry TB, Handy RD (2013) Subtle alterations in swimming speed distributions of rainbow trout exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles are associated with gill rather than brain injury. Aquatic toxicology 126, 116-27.

Chen GX, Liu, XY, Su CM (2012) Distinct effects of humic acid on transport and retention of TiO2 rutile nanoparticles in saturated sand columns. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(13), 7142-7150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es204010g. PMid:22681399.

Chen J, Dong X, Zhao J, Tang G (2009) In vivo acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to mice after intraperitoneal injection. Journal of applied toxicology, 29(4), 330-7.

Cipriano RC (2001) Aeromonas hydrophila and motile aeromonad septicemias of fish. Fish disease leaflet 68 United States department of the interior fish and wildlife service division of fishery research, Washington, D C 20240. http:// wwwlscusgsgov/fhb/leaflets/FHB68pdf

Coles EH (1974). Vet. Clin. Path. PP. 211-213. W.B. Sounders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto.

Dacie JV, lewis SM (1975) (Practical Haematology.) London, Churchill. Livingstone.

Derango R, Page J (1996) The quantitation of coupled bead antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of Immunoassay 17, 145-53.

Doumas BT, Waston WA, Biggs HG (1971) Albumin standards and the measurements of serum albumin with Bromocresol Green. Clinical chemistry, Acta. 31, 87-96.

Drubkin D (1964) Spectrophotometric methods XIV. The crystographic and optical properties of the haemoglobin of man in comparison with those of other species. Journal of biology and chemistry 164, 703-23.

Duan Y, Liu H, Zhao J, Liu C, Li Z, Yan J (2009) The effects of nano-anatase TiO(2) on the activation of lactate dehydrogenase from rat heart. Biological Trace Element Research 130(2), 162-71.

EPA (2010) Nanomaterial case studies: Nanoscale titanium dioxide in water treatment and in topical sunscreen, vol. EPA/600/R-09/057F Esteve C, Biosca EG, Amaro C (1993) Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and some other bacteria isolated from European eels Anguilla Anguilla reared in freshwater. Diseases of aquatic organisms 16, 5–10.

Federici G, Shaw BJ, Handy RD (2007) Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects. Aquatic toxicology 84, 415–30.

Firat O, Bozat RC (2018) Assessment of biochemical and toxic responses induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1465338

Gordon L, Giraud E, Ganiere GP, Armand F, Bouju-Albert A, de la Cotte N, Mangion C, Le Bri H (2007) Antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms. Journal of Applied Microbiology 102, 1167–76.

Griffitt RJ, Hyndman K, Denslow N, Barber D (2009) Comparison of molecular and histological changes in zebrafish gills exposed to metallic nanoparticles. Toxicological Sciences 107(2), 404-15.

Hadidi S, Glenney GW, Welch TJ, Silverstein JT, Wiens GD (2008) Spleen size predicts resistance of rainbow trout to Flavobacterium psychrophilum challenge. Journal of Immunology 180 (6), 4156-4165.https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.6.4156

Henry RJ (1974). Clinical chemistry, principles and technical. 2nd Edition, Harper and Row, pp.525.

Hornitzky M, Searson J (1986) The relationship between the isolation of Brucella abortus and serological status of infected, non-vaccinated cattle. Australian veterinary journal 63, 172-74. http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb02966.x

Htun-han M (1978) The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanda (L) in the North Sea; gonadosomatic Index; Hepatosomatic Index and condition factor. Journal of fish biology, 13, 369-78.

Jacobs JF, Poel I, Osseweijer (2010) Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment. Nanoethics 4(2), 103-113.

Johar D, Roth, JC, Bay GH, Walker JN, Kroczak TJ, Los M (2004) Inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, programmed (necrotic-like and apoptotic) cell death and cancer. Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Bialymstoku 49,31-9.

Jovanovic B, Whitley E M, Kimura K, Crumpton A, Palic D (2015) Titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhance mortality of fish exposed to bacterial pathogens. Environmental pollution 203, 153-64.

Karimipour SN and Tanomand A (2016) Evaluating the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles of silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences 5(11), 424-430.

Lammel T, Sturve J (2018) Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in the rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) liver and gill cell lines RTL-W1 and RTgill-W1 under particular consideration of nanoparticle stability and interference with fluorometric assays. Nano impact 11, 1-19.

Liu H, Ma L, Zhao J, Liu J, Yan J, Ruan J (2009) Biochemical toxicity of nano-anatase TiO2 particles in mice. Biological trace element research 129(1), 170-80.

Markets R (2015) The world market for nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2)0 http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1651709/>.

Menard A, Drobne D, Jemec A (2011) Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO2. Review of in vivo data. Environment pollution 159, 677-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.027.

Mohandas J, Marshall JJ, Duggin GG, Horvath JS, Tiller DJ (1984) Differential distribution of glutathione and glutathione related enzymes in rabbit kidney: Possible implications in analgesic neuropathy. Can cer research 44, 5086-91.

Ravikumar S, Gokulakrishnan R, Selvanathan K, Selvam S (2011) Antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against ophthalmic pathogens. International Journal of Pharmaceutical research and development 3(5), 122-127.

Reeves JF, Davies SJ, Dodd NJ, Jha AN (2008) Hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells. Mutation research 640, 113-122.

Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) Determination of AST and ALT in serum. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28, 56-68.

Rodiger S, Burdukiewicz M (2013) ChipPCR: toolkit of helper functions to pre-process amplification data Available from: URL: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/chipPCR/index.html

Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Weller PJ. (2003) Fourth ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, London, United Kingdom, and the American Pharmaceutical Association. Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients.

Sadekarpawar S, Parikh P (2013) Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus in response to a plant nutrient. World Journal of Zoology 8(1): 110-118.

Sakr F, Dabbous M, Malaeb DN, Rahal M (2014) Novel antimicrobial agents: A review International journal of pharmacy and technology 5(4), 2824-2838.

Schaperclaus W, Kulow H, Schreckenbach K (1992) Fish diseases. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Shi H, Magaye R, Castranova V, Zhao J (2013) Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data. Part fibre toxicology 10-15.

Shi W, Han Y, Guo C, Zhao X, Liu S, Su W, Zha S, Wang Y, Liu G (2017) Immunotoxicity of nanoparticle nTiO2 to a commercial marine bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa. Fish and shellfish immunology 66, 300-306.

Sole M, Anto M, Baena M, Carrasson M, Cartes JE, Maynou F (2010) Hepatic biomarkers of xenobiotic metabolism in eighteen marine fish from NW Mediterranean shelf and slope waters in relation to some of their biological and ecological variables. Marine Environmental Research 70 (2), 181-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. marenvres. 2010.04.008.

SPSS (2004) “Statistical and package for social science, SPSS for windows release14.0.0, 19 June, 2004.” Standard version, copyright SPSS Inc., 1989-2004.

Stoskopf MK (1993) Fish medicine, W.B. Saunders Company, London.

Vale G, Mehennaoui K, Cambier S, Libralato G, Jomini S, Domingos RF (2016) Manufactured nanoparticles in the aquatic environment biochemical responses on freshwater organisms: A critical overview. Aquatic toxicology 170, 162-74.

Wang J, Zhou G, Chen C, Yu H, Wang T, Ma Y (2007) Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration. Toxicology letters 168(2), 176-85.

Weichselbaum TE (1946) Determination of total proteins. American journal of clinical pathology 7: 40.

Woo P, Bruno D (2014) Diseases and Disorders of Finfish in Cage Culture. 2nd Ed. CABI Pub 159-160.

Xiong D, Fang T, Yu L, Sima X, Zhu W (2011) Effects of nano-scale TiO2, ZnO and their bulk counterparts on zebrafish: acute toxicity, oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Sciences of the total environment 409(8), 1444-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 A.H. SHERIF, E.T. ALSOKARY, H.A. ESAM

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.