Occurrence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Arcobacter in pet birds of northern Iran

Pet birds Enterophatogens PCR Fecal samples

Pet birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission of infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping pet birds, this study was conducted in pet birds from Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Totally, 174 fecal samples of pet birds (cockatiel, canary, lovebird, parrot, mynah, goldfinch, budgerigar, macaw, dove, pigeon, and bulbul) were collected with sterile cotton swabs and submitted to Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology (Amol, Iran). After extraction of total DNA, the samples subjected to molecular detection of the Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Arcobacter using polymerase chain reaction. A total of 114 (65.5%), 28 (16%), and 86 (49.4%) samples were found positive for Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Arcobacter, respectively. Furthermore, some birds showed contamination with two or all three of these bacteria. Results showed that mentioned bacteria can be detected from the apparently healthy pet birds. Therefore pet birds can be considered as potential carriers of these enteropathogens.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Ansari-Lari M, Hosseinzadeh S, Shekarforoush SS, Abdollahi M, Berizi E. (2011) Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter infections in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran. Int J Food Microbiol 144: 475-479.
Belén V, Esperón F, Neves E, López J, Ballesteros C, Muñoz MJ (2010) Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid. Acta Vet Scand 52(1): 45.
Benskin CMWH, Wilson K, Jones K, Hartley IR (2009) Bacterial pathogens in wild birds: a review of the frequency and effects of infection. Biol Rev 84: 349-373.
Brobey B, Kucknoor A, Armacost J (2017) Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas. Avian Dis 6: 347-352.
Boseret G, Losson B, Mainil JG, Thiry E, Saegerman C (2013) Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives. Vet Res 44: 36.
Colles FM, Dingle KE, Cody AJ, Maiden MC (2008) Comparison of Campylobacter populations in wild geese with those in starlings and free range poultry on the same farm. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3583-3590.
Dhama K, Karthik K, Chakraborty S, Tiwari R, Kapoor S (2013) Wildlife: a hidden warehouse of zoonosis - a review. Int J Curr Res 5: 1866-1879.
Di Francesco A, Delogu M, Giacometti F, Stancampiano L, Grilli E, GuarnieroI, Serraino A (2014) First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto). Vet Italiana 50: 313-315.
Dipineto L, Borrelli L, Pace A, Romano V, D’Orazio S, Varriale L, Russo TP, Fioretti A (2017) Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy. Acta Vet Scand 59: 6.
Ehsannejad F, Sheikholmolooki A, Hassanzadeh M, Shojaei Kavan R; Soltani M (2015) Detection of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in fecal samples of pet birds in Iran. Iranian J Vet Med 9(1): 49-56.
Georgiades GK, Iordanidis P (2002) Prevalence of Salmonella infection in pigeons, canaries and psittacines. J Hellenic Vet Med Soc 53: 113-118.
González-Acuña D, Silva GF, Moreno SL, Cerda LF, Donoso ES, Cabello CJ, López MJ (2007) Detection of some zoonotic agents in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) in the city of Chillán, Chile. Rev Chilena Infectol 24: 199-203.
Griekspoor P, Colles FM, McCarthy ND, Hansbro PM, Ashhurst-Smith C, Olsen B, Hasselquist D, Maiden MC, Waldenström J (2013). Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds. Mol ecol 22: 1463-1472.
Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk KB, Wancerz A, Martyna J, Więcek S, Wojcieszyn M, Horowska-Ziaja S, Chlebowczyk W, Woś H (2013) Clinical course of Campylobacter infections in children. Polish Paediatrics 88: 329-334.
Ho, HT, Lipman LJ, Gaastra W (2008) The introduction of Arcobacter spp. in poultry slaughterhouses. Int J Food Microbiol 125: 223-229.
Khoshbakht R, Seifi S, Karimi A, Khosravi M (2017) Molecular identification of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Salmonella in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) reared in farms of northern Iran. J Food Qual Hazards Control 4: 58-62.
Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Wu Y, Sow SO, Sur D, Breiman RF, Faruque AS, Zaidi AK, Saha D, Alonso PL, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ochieng JB, Omore R, Oundo JO, Hossain A, Das SK, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Adegbola RA, Antonio M, Hossain MJ, Akinsola A, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Acácio S, Biswas K, O’Reilly CE, Mintz ED, Berkeley LY, Muhsen K, Sommerfelt H, Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM (2013) Burden and aetiology of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet 382: 209-222.
Lehner A, Tasara T, Stephan R (2005) Relevant aspects of Arcobacter spp.as potential foodborne pathogen. Int J Food Microbiol 102: 127-135.
Lillehaug A, Monceyron Jonassen C, Bergsjø B, Hofshagen M, TharaldsenJ, Nesse LL, Handeland K (2005) Screening of feral pigeon (Colomba livia), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and graylag goose (Anser anser) populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., avian influenza virus and avian paramyxovirus. Acta Vet Scand 46:193-202.
Lyngstad TM, Jonsson ME, Hofshagen M, Heier BT (2008) Risk factors associated with the presence of Campylobacter species in Norwegian Broiler Flocks. Poult Sci 87: 1987-1994.
Madadgar O, Zahraei Salehi T, Ghafari MM, Tamai IA, Madani SA, Yahyareyat R (2009) Study of an unusual paratyphoid epornitic in canaries (Serinus canaria). Avian Pathol 38: 437-441.
Mi’kanatha NM, Dettinger LA, Perry A, Rogers P, Reynolds SM, Nachamkin I (2012) Culturing stool specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 484-487.
Neupane A, Parajuli P, Bastola R., Paudel A (2017) Bacterial etiology of diarrheal disease in children and antibiogram of the isolates. Clin Microbiol 6(2): 1-8.
Osman KM, Mehrez M, Erfan AM, Nayerah A (2013) Salmonella enterica isolated from pigeon (Columba livia) in Egypt. Food borne Pathog Dis 10: 481-484.
Rahmani M, Peighambari SM, Yazdani A., Hojjati P (2011) Salmonella infection in birds kept in parks and pet shops in Tehran, Iran. Int J Vet Res 5: 145-148.
Son I, Englen MD, Berrang ME, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Harrison MA (2007) Antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter and Campylobacter from broiler carcasses. Int J Antimicrob Agents 29: 451-455.
Sousa E, Berchieri AJ, Pinto AA, Machado RZ, de Carrasco AO, Marciano JA, Werther K (2010) Prevalence of Salmonella spp. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the city of Jaboticabal, Brazil. J Zoo Wild Med 41: 603-607.
Tanaka C, Miyazawa T, Watarai M, Ishi- guro N (2005) Bacteriologicalsurvey of feces from feral pigeons in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 67: 951-953.
Vandenberg O, Dediste A, Houf K, Ibekwem S, Souayah H, Cadranel S, Douat N, Zissis G, Butzler JP, Vandamme P (2004) Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1863-1867.
Waldenstrom J, Broman T, Carlsson I, Hasselquist D, Achterberg RP, Wagenaar JA, Olsen B (2002) Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 5911-5917.
Waldenstrom J, On SL, Ottvall R, Hasselquist D, Olsen B (2007) Species diversity of Campylobacteria in a wild bird community in Sweden. J Appl Microbiol 102: 424-432.
Zamani Moghaddam A, Tahmasby H, Mehrabiyan S, Barati S., Hashemi Babaheidari SH, Safarpour M (2011) Molecular detection of Campylobacter in domestic pigeons from Shahrekord, Iran. J Vet Microbiol 7: 63-71.
Most read articles by the same author(s)