Peritoneal dialysis in dogs and cats

peritoneum AKI CKD peritoneal dialysis
Dialysis represents the separation process of a colloidal dispersion substance from molecular dispersion particles, based on the property of certain membranes to retain only colloidal particles. In veterinary medicine, the most common use for peritoneal dialysis is the therapy of acute kidney injury, although it can be employed for removing dialyzable toxins and treating pancreatitis, electrolyte disorders and acid-base imbalances, refractory congestive heart failure and metabolic congenital disorders. Peritoneal dialysis is contraindicated in patients with peritoneal adhesions, fibrosis or abdominal malignant tumours. The ideal catheter for dialysis allows for an adequate administration and evacuation of the dialysate, it determines minimum subcutaneous losses, it minimizes infection both in the peritoneal cavity and in the subcutaneous tissue. The placement method for peritoneal dialysis catheters depends on the catheter itself, on the patient and on the approximate duration of the dialysis. In cases of extreme emergency, when the peritoneal dialysis should not be used more than 72 hours, the placement of a short-term catheter is justified. The peritoneal dialysis system is placed immediately after the peritoneal dialysis catheter is inserted and attached to a closed collection system, being carefully prepped in place with dry sterile dressings. The ideal peritoneal dialysis solution should achieve the low absorption clearance of osmotic agents, provide missing or insufficient electrolytes and nutrients, correct acid-base imbalances, inhibit growth of microorganisms, and be inert with regard to the peritoneum. When initiating peritoneal dialysis in acute kidney injury, the main goal is not to immediately normalize uraemia. The initial objectives should be to normalize the hemodynamic status of the patient and the acid-base and electrolyte imbalances, as well as to reduce uraemia to a BUN of 60-100 mg/dl and to reach a creatinine of 4.0-6.0 mg/dl in 24-48 hours. Complications of peritoneal dialysis are common, but they can be easily managed if discovered or addressed in due time. The most common complications are: peritoneal catheter obstruction, electrolyte imbalances, hypoalbuminemia and bacterial peritonitis.
Article Details
  • Section
  • Review Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Acierno, M.J., Labato, Mary, Kidney Diseases and Renal Replacement Therapies, An Issue of Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice, Elsevier-Saunders, Ottawa, 2011.
Barges, J., Polzin, D. J., Nephrology and Urology of Small animals, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., UK, p. 433, 2011.
Costea, Ruxandra, Vitalaru, B. Al., Propofol induction anesthesia for central venous catheterization in dogs with renal failure, Journal of Biotechnology, 2015.
Donohoe, Charlotte, Fluid Therapy for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses, Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
Elliott, D. A., Nutritional Considerations for the Dialytic Patient, Kidney Diseases and Renal Replacement Therapies, Editura W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 2011.
Holowaychuk, Marie, Marks, S. L., Peritoneal Dialysis, Critical Care Medicine Section Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, 2011.
Langston, Cathy, “Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats”, Elsevier, 2011 Mazzaferro, Elisa, Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult – Clinical Companion Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, Wiley Blackwell, 2012.
Michell, A. R., Renal disease in dogs and cats, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
Munteanu, Raluca, Scoicaru, L. O., Militaru, Manuella, Gagniuc, Elvira, Micsa, C., Togoe, D., Vitalaru, B. Al., Rusu, M. I., Tautan, M., Chiricuta, B., Udrea, M. V., Sonea, Al., Grigorescu, C. E. A., Birtoiu, I. A., Comparison of benign and malignant mammary tumors in dogs through Raman spectroscopy: Two clinical cases, Agrolife Scientific Journal, Bucharest, 2017.
Plunkett, S. J., Emergency Procedures for the Small Animal Veterinarian, 3rd Edition, Saunders, 2013.
Polzin, D., Treating canine kidney disease: an evidence-based approach, College of Veterinary Medicine University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, January 7-11, 2006.
Ross, Linda, Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs and Cats, în Kidney Diseases and Renal Replacement Therapies, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 2011.
Thornhill, J. A., Peritoneal Dialysis in the dog and cat, Compend cortin educ prac vet, 3, 20-34, 1981.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Dializa peritoneală în medicina veterinară - Veterinaria, pp. 18-20, CMV România, No. 16, octomber-december, 2014.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Dializa peritoneală la pisică - Catlife, pp. 6-8, SRMF, No. 6, 3/2014.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Hemodializa vs. dializa peritoneală la carnivorele domestic - Practica veterinară, pp. 32-41, AMVAC, No. 4/2014.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Micşa, C., Bîrţoiu, I. A., Peritoneal dialysis: key therapy in kidney failure in small sized dogs, Bulletin UASVM Veterinary Medicine 71(2), Print ISSN 18435270; Electronic ISSN 1843-5378, DOI:10.15835/buasvmcn-vm: 10737, 2014.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Ştefănescu Alina, Terapia adjuvantă în insuficiența renală la pisici, Cat life, nr.7 (1/2015), 2015.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Elemente cheie în managementul pacienţilor cu insuficienţă renală supuşi dializei peritoneale, The 10th International Congress AMVAC, Sinaia, 12-14 november 2015.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Micşa, C., Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Renal and Liver Failure Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 6C, pp. 392-396, 2015.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Petrescu, V. F., Peritoneal Dialysis in Chronic Renal Failure On Cat, Scientific Works. Series C., Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, 2016.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Ştefănescu Alina, Peritoneal Dialysis in small animals, Ed. Printech, Bucharest, 2018.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Ene, A.G., Chiotoroiu, L. A., The importance of the Dacron cuffs in peritoneal dialysis catheters for acute kidney injury applied in veterinary medicine, Industria Textilă, Bucharest, 2019.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Rusu, M. I., Mihai, C., Chiotoroiu, A., A comparison between Chinese finger trap and Roman sandals suture in peritoneal dialysis catheters for chronic kidney disease applied in veterinary medicine, Industria Textilă, Bucharest, 2020.
Viţălaru, B. Al., Peritoneal Dialysis in small animals, Ed. Sciendo, Bucharest, 2020.