Essential oils as alternatives to chemical feed additives for maximizing livestock production

Essential oils poultry ruminants antibiotic resistance pigs

This review is aimed at providing basic and current knowledge about possible mechanisms and nutritional applications of essential oils (EOs) for food animals. Public concern on the excessive use of antibiotics in livestock production has started extensive research to find safe and efficient options. EOs extracted from aromatic plants are known to have a range of biologically active properties that can be applied to modern animal production. Primarily, EOs possess anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and digestion enhancing effects as they improve digestive enzymes, improve feed conversion ratio, modulate ruminal fermentation, add antioxidant properties, and underpin animal immunity. The dietary supplementation of EOs demonstrated as a simple and proficient approach to enhance the performance of livestock. However, mechanisms involved in enhancing animal performance, modulating ruminal fermentation, and microflora are still unclear. Moreover, limited information is available regarding interactions among feed, EOs, and gut ecosystem of animals. EOs could be used as nutraceuticals with possible commercial applications in modern animal nutrition such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, growth promoters, and immunomodulators, alternatives to chemical feed additives. This knowledge encourages further investigations about EOs to realize their full potential and build up their standard use in livestock production.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Review Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Abbasi MA, Ghazanfari S, Sharifi SD & Gavlighi HA (2019) The effect of rosemary, thymus and satureja essential oils, vitamin E and vegetable oils on immune system and intestinal microflora of broiler chicken. J Vet Res 74:153-166.
Abdallah Sallam SM, Mohamed Abdelgaleil SA, da Silva Bueno IC, Abdelwahab Nasser ME, Araujo RC & Abdalla AL (2011). Effect of some essential oils on in vitro methane emission. Arch Ani Nut 65:203-14.
Abdel Hameed RG, Mostafa MH & El-Malt MA (2020). Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thyme Extract on Streptococcus Mutans. Al-Azhar Dental J Girls 7:313-318.
Abdollahzadeh E, Ojagh SM, Hosseini H, Ghaemi H & Irajian G (2018) Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamon Essential Oil and ZnO Nanoparticles against Listeria monocytogenes. Fish Sci Technol 7:49-55.
Abdullah BH, Hatem SF, Jumaa W (2015). A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils on multidrug resistant bacteria. UK J Pharm Biosci 3:18-22.
Abeer M, Ahlam R & Marwa H (2019) Impact of Anise, Clove, and Thyme essential oils as feed supplements on the productive performance and digestion of Barki ewes. Australian J Basic Appl Sci 13:1-13.
Abo Ghanima MM, Elsadek MF, Taha AE, El-Hack A, Mohamed E, Alagawany M, Ahmed BM, Elshafie MM & El-Sabrout K (2020) Effect of Housing System and Rosemary and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Layers Performance, Egg Quality, Haematological Traits, Blood Chemistry, Immunity, and Antioxidant. Animals 10:245.
Adil S, Magray SN (2012). Impact and manipulation of gut microflora in poultry: a review. J Anim Vet Adv 11:873-877.
Ahmadian A, Seidavi A & Phillips CJC (2020) Growth, Carcass Composition, Haematology and Immunity of Broilers Supplemented with Sumac Berries (Rhus coriaria L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Animals 10:513.
Ahmed EM, Attia AI, Ibrahem ZA & Abd El-Hack ME (2019) Effect Of Dietary Ginger And Cinnamon Oils Supplementation On Growing Japanese Quail Performance. Zagazig J Agri Res 46:2037-2046.
Ahmed ST, Hossain ME, Kim GM, Hwang JA, Ji H, Yang CJ (2013). Effects of Resveratrol and Essential Oils on Growth Performance, Immunity, Digestibility and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Challenged Piglets. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 26:683-690.
Akbari Z, Dastan D, Maghsood AH, Fallah M & Matini M (2018) Investigation of In vitro Efficacy of Marrubium vulgare L. Essential Oil and Extracts Against Trichomonas vaginalis. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 20:e67003.
Akram MZ, Fırıncıoğlu SY, Jalal H & Doğan SC (2019b) The Use of Essential Oils in Active Food Packaging: A Review of Recent Studies. TURJAF 7:1799-804.
Akram MZ, Salman M, Jalal H, Asghar U, Ali Z, Javed MH & Khan M (2019a) Evaluation of dietary supplementation of Aloe vera as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler production. Turkish J Vet Res 3:21-26.
Al-Mnaser AA & Woodward MJ (2020) Sub-lethal Concentrations of Phytochemicals (Carvacrol and Oregano) Select for Reduced Susceptibility Mutants of Escherichia coli O23:H52. Polish J Microbiol 69:121-125.
Al-Nabulsi AA, Osaili TM, Olaimat AN, Almasri WE, Ayyash M, Al-Holy MA, Jaradat ZW, Obaid RS & Holley RA (2020). Inactivation of Salmonella spp. in tahini using plant essential oil extracts. Food Microbiol 86:103338.
Amat S, Baines D & Alexander TW (2017). 249 Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils against the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica and analysis of their chemical composition and cytotoxicity on bovine turbinate cells. J Anim Sci 95:122-123.
Attia YA, Bakhashwain AA & Bertu NK (2017) Thyme oil (Thyme vulgaris L.) as a natural growth promoter for broiler chickens reared under hot climate. Italian J Ani Sci 16:275-282.
Aydin ÖD & Yildiz G (2020) The effects of thyme oil and black cumin oil in broiler feeding on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, and cecal volatile fatty acids. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 44:17-25.
Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M (2008). Biological effects of essential oils - A review. Food Chem Toxicol 46:446-475.
Baraz H, Jahani-Azizabadi H & Azizi O (2018) Simultaneous use of thyme essential oil and disodium fumarate can improve in vitro ruminal microbial fermentation characteristics. Vet Res Forum 9:193-198.
Barbarestani SY, Jazi V, Mohebodini H, Ashayerizadeh A, Shabani A & Toghyani M (2020) Effects of dietary lavender essential oil on growth performance, intestinal function, and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Livest Sci 233:103958.
Bayat AR, Kairenius P, Stefański T, Leskinen H, Comtet-Marre S, Forano E, Chaucheyras-urand F, Shingfield KJ (2015). Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets. J Dairy Sci 98:3166-3181.
Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM (2006). Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil. J Anim Sci 84:1489-1496.
Benchaar C (2020) Feeding oregano oil and its main component carvacrol does not affect ruminal fermentation, nutrient utilization, methane emissions, milk production, or milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 103:1516-1527.
Benchaar C, Greathead H (2011). Essential oils and opportunities to mitigate enteric methane emissions from ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., Special Issue: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions 166:338-355.
Bertoloni AV, Polizel DM, Júnior MV, Oliveira GB, Miszura AA, Barroso JP, Martins AS, Sardinha LA, Limede AC, Ferreira EM & Pires AV (2020) Brazilian red pepper leaves essential oil (Schinus terebinthifolius) in diets for feedlot lambs. Brazilian Journal of Vet Res Ani Sci 57:e157580-e157580.
Bodas R, Prieto N, García-González R, Andrés S, Giráldez FJ, López S (2012). Manipulation of rumen fermentation and methane production with plant secondary metabolites. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., Special Issue: Plant Bioactive Compounds in Ruminant Agriculture – Impacts and Opportunities 176:78-93.
Bosco Stivanin SC, Vizzotto EF, de Paris M, Zanela MB, Passos LT, Angelo ID & Fischer V (2019) Addition of oregano or green tea extracts into the diet for Jersey cows in transition period. Feeding and social behavior, intake and health status. Plant extracts for cows in the transition period. Ani Feed Sci Technol 257:114265.
Burt S (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int J Food Microbiol 94:223-253.
Büyükkılıç Beyzi S, Konca Y, Kaliber M, Sarıözkan S, Kocaoğlu Güçlü B, Aktuğ E & Şentürk M (2020) Effects of thyme essential oil and A, C, and E vitamin combinations to diets on performance, egg quality, MDA, and 8-OHdG of laying hens under heat stress. J Appl Ani Res
Campolina JP, Coelhor SG, Belli AL, Machado FS, Pereira LG, Tomich TR, Carvalho WA, Silva RO, Voorsluys AL, Jacob DV & Campos MM (2020) Effects of a blend of essential oils in milk replacer on performance, rumen fermentation, blood parameters and health scores of dairy heifers. bioRxiv.
Cardinali R, Cullere M, Dal Bosco A, Mugnai C, Ruggeri S, Mattioli S, Castellini C, Trabalza Marinucci M & Dalle Zotte A (2015). Oregano, rosemary and vitamin E dietary supplementation in growing rabbits: Effect on growth performance, carcass traits, bone development and meat chemical composition. Livest Sci 175:83-89.
Cardozo PW, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Kamel C (2004). Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. J Anim Sci 82:3230-3236.
Cázares-Gallegos R, Silva-Vázquez R, Hernández-Martínez CA, Gutiérrez-Soto JG, Kawas-Garza JR, Hume ME & Méndez-Zamora GM (2019) Performance, Carcass Variables, and Meat Quality of Broilers Supplemented with Dietary Mexican Oregano Oil. Brazilian J Poul Sci: 21.
Cerioli MF, Moliva MV, Cariddi LN & Reinoso EB (2018) Effect of the Essential Oil of Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling and Limonene on Biofilm Production in Pathogens Causing Bovine Mastitis. Front Vet Sci 5:146.
Cheshmehgachi SM, Moeini MM, Hozhabri F & Soror MEN (2019) Effect of different levels of fennel essential oil on in vitro gas production parameters and protozoa population of goat rumen. Ani Prod Res 8.
Cho JH, Kim HJ & Kim IH (2014) Effects of phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, intestinal microbiota, meat color and relative organ weight after oral challenge with Clostridium perfringens in broilers. Livest Sci 160:82-88.
Cho Y, Kim H, Beuchat LR & Ryu JH (2020) Synergistic activities of gaseous oregano and thyme thymol essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes on surfaces of a laboratory medium and radish sprouts. Food Microbiol 86:103357.
Christaki E, Giannenas I, Bonos E & Florou-Paneri P (2020) Innovative uses of aromatic plants as natural supplements in nutrition. In: Feed Additives, Academic Press: pp. 19-34.
Cobellis G, Petrozzi A, Forte C, Acuti G, Orrù M, Marcotullio MC, Aquino A, Nicolini A, Mazza V & Trabalza-Marinucci M (2015) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems. Sustainability 7:12856-12869.
Cobellis G, Trabalza-Marinucci M, Marcotullio MC & Yu Z (2016) Evaluation of different essential oils in modulating methane and ammonia production, rumen fermentation, and rumen bacteria in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol 215:25-36.
Coma V (2012) Antimicrobial and antioxidant active packaging for meat and poultry. In: Advances in Meat, Poultry and Seafood Packaging, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Woodhead Publishing: pp. 477-503.
Coneglian SM, Serrano RDC, Cruz OTB & Branco AF (2019) Effects of essential oils of Cashew and Castor on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and purine derivatives in beef cattle fed high grain diets. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 40:2057-2070.
Cufadar Y (2018) Effects of Dietary Oregano Essential Oil Supplementation on Performance and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens. Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 32:158-161.
Davoodi SM, Mesgaran MD, Vakili AR, Valizadeh R & Pirbalouti AG (2019) In vitro Effect of Essential Oils on Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Nitrogen Yield of High Concentrate Dairy Cow Diet. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 16:333-341.
de Oliveira Monteschio J, de Souza KA, Vital AC, Guerrero A, Valero MV, Kempinski EM, Barcelos VC, Nascimento KF & do Prado IN (2017) Clove and rosemary essential oils and encapsuled active principles (eugenol, thymol and vanillin blend) on meat quality of feedlot-
finished heifers. Meat Sci 130:50-57.
Dehghani N, Afsharmanesh M, Salarmoini M, Ebrahimnejad H & Bitaraf A (2018) Effect of pennyroyal, savory and thyme essential oils on Japanese quail physiology. Heliyon 4(10): e00881.
Diler O, Gormez O, Diler I & Metin S (2017) Effect of oregano (Origanum onites L.) essential oil on growth, lysozyme and antioxidant activity and resistance against Lactococcus garvieae in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aqua Nut 23:844-851.
Diniz-Silva HT, Brandao LR, de Sousa Galvão M, Madruga MS, Maciel JF, de Souza EL & Magnani (2020) M Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Minas Frescal cheese made with oregano and rosemary essential oils. Food Microbiol 86:103348.
Dudareva N, Pichersky E & Gershenzon J (2004). Biochemistry of Plant Volatiles. Plant Physiol 135:1893-1902.
Ebani VV, Nardoni S, Bertelloni F, Pistelli L & Mancianti F (2018) Antimicrobial Activity of Five Essential Oils against Bacteria and Fungi Responsible for Urinary Tract Infections. Molecules 23:1668.
Elcocks ER, Spencer-Phillips PTN & Adukwu EC (2020). Rapid bactericidal effect of cinnamon bark essential oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J App Microbiol 128:1025-1037.
Elcoso G, Zweifel B & Bach A (2019) Effects of a blend of essential oils on milk yield and feed efficiency of lactating dairy cows. Appl Ani Sci 35:304-311.
Eler G, Gomes AV, Trindade BS, Almeida LS, Dilelis F, Cardoso VS & Lima CA (2019) Oregano essential oil in the diet of broilers: performance, carcass characteristics, and blood parameters. South African J Ani Sci 49:753-762.
El-Essawy AM, Abdou AR, Khattab IM & Abdel-Wahed AM (2019) Effect Of Addition Of Anise, Clove And Thyme Essential Oils On Barki Lambs Performance, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, Carcass Characteristics And Intramuscular Fatty Acids. Egyptian J Nut Feeds 22:465-477.
El-Gogary MR (2020) Ecofriendly Synthesis Of Calcium Nanoparticles With Biocompatible Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract On Physiological And Immunological Effects In Broiler Chickens. Egyptian Poult Sci J 40:81-102.
El-Katcha MI, Soltan MA & Essi MS (2016) Effect of Garlic Extract Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Some Blood Serum Biochemical Changes of Fattening Lambs. AJVS 48:24-133.
El-Shall NA, Nahed A, Shewita RS, Abd El-Hack ME, AlKahtane A, Alarifi S, Alkahtani S, Abdel-Daim MM & Sedeik ME (2020) Effect of essential oils on the immune response to some viral vaccines in broiler chickens, with special reference to Newcastle disease virus. Poult Sci.
Ezzeldeen NA, Amin AA, Khyralla HA & Abdelmonem MA (2015) Effect of some essential oils on verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from minced meat. Adv Env Biol 9:33-42.
Falowo AB, Mukumbo FE, Idamokoro EM, Afolayan AJ & Muchenje V (2019) Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential Oil on Ground Beef from Boran and Nguni Cattle. Int J Food Sci. doi:
Fathi MM, Al-Homidan I, Ebeid TA, Abou-Emera OK & Mostafa MM (2020) Dietary supplementation of Eucalyptus leaves enhances eggshell quality and immune response in two varieties of Japanese quails under tropical condition. Poult Sci 99:879-885.
Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E, Giannenas I (2019). Feed Additives: Aromatic Plants and Herbs in Animal Nutrition and Health. In: Feed Additives, Academic Press.
Fratini F, Casella S, Leonardi M, Pisseri F, Ebani VV, Pistelli L & Pistelli L (2014) Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis. Fitoterapia 96:1-7.
Giannenas I, Bonos E, Christaki E & Florou-Paneri P (2018) Oregano: A Feed Additive with Functional Properties. Therapeutic Foods, Academic Press: pp. 179-208.
Giannenas I, Sidiropoulou E, Bonos E, Christaki E & Florou-Paneri P (2020) The history of herbs, medicinal and aromatic plants, and their extracts: Past, current situation and future perspectives. In: Feed Additives. Academic Press: pp. 1-18.
Giller K, Rilko T, Manzocchi E, Hug S, Bolt R & Kreuzer M (2020) Effects of mixed essential oils from eucalyptus, thyme and anise on composition, coagulation properties and antioxidant capacity of the milk of dairy cows. J Anim Feed Sci 29:3-10.
Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Hoti SL, Bhattacharyya A & Benelli G (2016). Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. Parasitol Res
Gumus R, Ercan N, Imik H, Gumus R, Ercan N & Imik H (2017) The Effect of Thyme Essential Oil (Thymus Vulgaris) Added to Quail Diets on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, and the Antioxidative Metabolism of the Serum and Liver Tissues. Brazilian J Poult Sci 19:297-304.
Guo M, Zhang L, He Q, Arabi SA, Zhao H, Chen W, Ye X & Liu D (2020) Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Ultrasound and Thyme Essential Oils Nanoemulsion against Escherichia coli O157: H7. Ultrason Sonochem 25:104988.
Hamdani H, Chami N, Oukhouia M, Jabeur I, Sennouni C & Remmal A (2019) Effect of a thymol-based additive on rumen fermentation, on methane emissions in eructed gas and on milk production in Holstein cows. Livest Res Rural Develop 31.
Hart KJ, Jones HG, Waddams KE, Worgan HJ, Zweifel B & Newbold CJ (2019) An Essential Oil Blend Decreases Methane Emissions and Increases Milk Yield in Dairy Cows. Open J Ani Sci 09:259.
Hassan HA (2019) Effects of Thyme Oil, Peppermint Oil and their Combination on Productive Performance, Carcass Criteria and Blood Profile of Broiler Chickens. J Ani Poult Prod 10:105-108.
Huang Y, Lin M, Jia M, Hu J & Zhu L (2020) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Aedes mosquitoes of essential oils from Arisaema fargesii. Pest Manage Sci 76:534-542.
Ismail FSA, El-Gogary MR & El-Morsy MN (2019) Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Levels Of Thyme And Its Essential Oils On Performance, Blood Parameters, Metabolic And Immune Response Of Broiler Chickens. Egyptian Poult Sci J 39:365-379.
Jalal H, Akram MZ, Doğan SC, Fırıncıoğlu SY, Irshad N & Khan M (2019) Role of Aloe Vera as A Natural Feed Additive in Broiler Production. TURJAF 10(sp1):163-166.
Janacua-Vidales H, Peña-González E, Alarcon-Rojo AD, Ortega-Gutiérrez J & Aguilar-Palma N (2019) Determination of carcase yield, sensory and acceptance of meat from male and female pigs with dietary supplementation of oregano essential oils. Italian J Ani Sci 18:668-
Jayasena DD & Jo C (2014). Potential Application of Essential Oils as Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review Food Rev Int 30:71-90.
Kareem MH, Khalaf JM, Hasan MS, Saleh EN & D Salih NO (2020) Effects of Eucalyptus Alcoholic Extracts on Pathogenic E. coli, Invitro Study. Inter J Pharma Res 12:1033-1034.
Khalili ST, Mohsenifar A, Beyki M, Zhaveh S, Rahmani-Cherati T, Abdollahi A, Bayat M & Tabatabaei M (2015) Encapsulation of Thyme essential oils in chitosan-benzoic acid nanogel with enhanced antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60:502-508.
Khateri N, Azizi O & Jahani-Azizabadi H (2017) Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 30:370-378.
Kiarsi Z, Hojjati M, Behbahani BA & Noshad M (2020) In vitro antimicrobial effects of Myristica fragrans essential oil on foodborne pathogens and its influence on beef quality during refrigerated storage. J Food Safety: e12782.
Knezevic P, Aleksic V, Simin N, Svircev E, Petrovic A & Mimica-Dukic N (2016) Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and their interactions with conventional antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Ethnopharm 178:125-136.
Kosari F, Taheri M, Moradi A, Hakimi Alni R & Alikhani MY (2020) Evaluation of cinnamon extract effects on clbB gene expression and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli strains isolated from colon cancer patients. BMC Cancer 20:267.
Kotsampasi B, Tsiplakou E, Christodoulou C, Mavrommatis A, Mitsiopoulou C, Karaiskou C, Sossidou E, Fragioudakis N, Kapsomenos I, Bampidis VA, Christodoulou V & Zervas G (2018). Effects of dietary orange peel essential oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, and blood and milk antioxidant status of dairy ewes. Anim Feed Sci Technol 245:20-31.
Kulma M, Bubová T, Kopeckỳ O & Rettich F (2017) Lavender, eucalyptus, and orange essential oils as repellents against Ixodes ricinus females. Sci Agri Boh 48:76-81.
Kumar S, Mendiratta SK, Agrawal RK, Sharma H & Singh BP (2018) Anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties of mutton nuggets incorporated with blends of essential oils. J Food Sci Technol 55:821-832.
Kurniawati A, Wigati DN, Hasanah C & Yusiati LM (2020) Improvement of ruminal feed fermentation by addition of eucalyptus based mix essential oil. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 425:012086.
Le TB, Beaufay C, Bonneau N, Mingeot-Leclercq M-P & Quetin-Leclercq J (2018) Anti-protozoal activity of essential oils and their constituents against Leishmania, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. Phytochimie 18:1.
Lee JE, Jung M, Lee SC, Huh MJ, Seo SM & Park IK (2020) Antibacterial mode of action of trans-cinnamaldehyde derived from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) essential oil against Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Pest Biochem Physiol 2:104546.
Lee JW, Kim DH, Kim YB, Jeong SB, Oh ST, Cho SY & Lee KW (2020) Dietary Encapsulated Essential Oils Improve Production Performance of Coccidiosis-Vaccine-Challenged Broiler Chickens. Animals 10:481.
Lei Z, Zhang K, Li C, Jiao T, Wu J, Wei Y, Tian K, Li C, Tang D, Davis DI & Casper DP (2019) Ruminal metagenomic analyses of goat data reveals potential functional microbiota by supplementation with essential oil-cobalt complexes. BMC Microbiol 19:30.
Liu T, Chen H, Bai Y, Wu J, Cheng S, He B & Casper DP (2020) Calf starter containing a blend of essential oils and prebiotics affects the growth performance of Holstein calves. J Dairy Sci 103:2315-2323.
Maqbul MS, Bokhari YA, Gumaan S, Basalib SN, Omar BM, Khan AA, Iqubal SS & Mohammed T (2020) A Comparative Study of Different Types of Thyme Essential oils Against Streptococcus pyogenes to Determine their Biochemical and Antimicrobial Properties. Orient J Chem 36(2).
Masood A, Qureshi AS, Shahid RU & Jamil H (2020) Effects of Oral Administration of Essential Oil (Mix Oil®) on Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphometry of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Pak Vet Journal.
Matloup OH, Abd El Tawab AM, Hassan AA, Hadhoud FI, Khattab MSA, Khalel MS, Sallam SMA & Kholif AE (2017). Performance of lactating Friesian cows fed a diet supplemented with coriander oil: Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood chemistry,
and milk production. Anim Feed Sci Technol 226:88-97.
Maty HN & Hassan AA (2020) Effect of supplementation of encapsulated organic acid and essential oil Gallant+® on some physiological parameters of Japanese quails. Iraqi J Vet Sci 34:181-188.
McIntosh FM, Williams P, Losa R, Wallace RJ, Beever DA & Newbold CJ (2003). Effects of Essential Oils on Ruminal Microorganisms and Their Protein Metabolism. Appl Env Microbiol 69:5011-5014.
Mekuiko HW, Tendonkeng F, Ngoula F, Miegoue E, Lemoufouet J, Zogang BF, Muhindo ZK, Chounna A, Mouchili M & Tedonkeng EP (2018) Effect of Added Quantity of the Callistemon viminalis Essential Oil on the in Vivo Digestibility of Pennisetum clandestinum Hay and Some Biochemical Parameters on the West African Dwarf Goat. J Agric Chem Environ 07:81.
Mercati F, Dall’Aglio C, Acuti G, Faeti V, Tardella FM, Pirino C, De Felice E & Scocco P (2020) Oregano Feed Supplementation Affects Glycoconjugates Production in Swine Gut. Animals 10(1):149.
Michailoff AA, Silveira MF, Maeda EM, Sordi ACB, Francisco LF & Farenzena R (2020) Effect of including functional oils in ovine diets on ruminal fermentation and performance. Small Rum Res 2:106084.
Migliorini MJ, Boiago MM, Roza LF, Barreta M, Arno A, Robazza WS, Galvao AC, Galli GM, Machado G, Baldissera MD & Wagner R (2019) Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) to feed laying hens and its effects on animal health. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 91: e20170901.
Mohammadi A, Ghazanfari S & Sharifi SD (2019) Comparative effects of dietary organic, inorganic, and Nano-selenium complexes and rosemary essential oil on performance, meat quality and selenium deposition in muscles of broiler chickens. Livest Sci 226:21-30.
Mohammadi A, Ghazanfari S & Sharifi SD. Comparative effects of dietary organic, inorganic, and Nano-selenium complexes and rosemary essential oil on performance, meat quality and selenium deposition in muscles of broiler chickens. Livest Sci 226:21-30.
Mohammed RK, Musa FH, Mehdi BY & Al-Rawe AM (2020). Impacts of the Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Thymus vulgaris L. Against the Causative Agent of Acne Formation (Staphylococcus aureus). Syst Rev Pharm 11:495-498.
Mohan A & Purohit AS (2020) Anti-Salmonella activity of pyruvic and succinic acid in combination with oregano essential oil. Food Control 110:106960.
Mountzouris KC, Paraskeuas V, Griela E, Papadomichelakis G & Fegeros K (2020) Effects of phytogenic inclusion level on broiler carcass yield, meat antioxidant capacity, availability of dietary energy, and expression of intestinal genes relevant for nutrient absorptive and cell
growth-protein synthesis metabolic functions. Anim Prod Sci 60:242-253.
Muir WI, Bryden WL & Husband AJ (2000). Immunity, vaccination and the avian intestinal tract. Dev Comp Immunol 24:325-342.
Olaimat AN, Al-Holy MA, Ghoush MHA, Al-Nabulsi AA, Osaili TM & Holley RA (2019) Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and thyme essential oils against Salmonella spp. in hummus (chickpea dip). J Food Process Preserv 43:e13925.
Oliva A, Costantini S, De Angelis M, Garzoli S, Božović M, Mascellino MT, Vullo V & Ragno R (2018) High potency of melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 23:2584.
Onel SE & Aksu T (2019) The Effect of Thyme (Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata) Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Potential and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail Fed in Various Stocking Densities. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 14:129-136.
Ortuño J, Serrano R, Jordán MJ & Bañón S (2014) Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400mgkg−1. Meat Sci 96:1452-1459.
Paiano RB, Bonilla J, Sousa RLM de, Moreno AM & Baruselli PS (2020). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against pathogens often related to cattle endometritis. J Infec Develop Count 14:177-183.
Park JH & Kim IH (2018) Effects of a protease and essential oils on growth performance, blood cell profiles, nutrient retention, ileal microbiota, excreta gas emission, and breast meat quality in broiler chicks. Poult Sci 97:2854-2860.
Parvar R, Ghoorchi T, Kashfi H & Parvar K (2018) Effect of Ferulago angulata (Chavil) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics. Small Rum Res 167:48-54.
Parvizi O, Taherkhani R & Abouzari M (2020) Evaluation the effect of using thyme and oregano powder in comparison to the antibiotic and probiotic supplementation on growth, some immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chicks. Ukrainian J Vet Agri Sci 3:3-8.
Pathak M, Mandal GP, Patra AK, Samanta I, Pradhan S & Haldar S (2017) Effects of dietary supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and formic acid on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens. Anim Prod Sci 57:821-827.
Patra AK & Saxena J (2010). A new perspective on the use of plant secondary metabolites to inhibit methanogenesis in the rumen. Phytochemistry 71:1198-1222.
Patra AK & Yu Z (2012). Effects of Essential Oils on Methane Production and Fermentation by, and Abundance and Diversity of, Rumen Microbial Populations. Appl Env Microbiol 78:4271-4280.
Pawar MM, Kamra DN, Chaudhary LC, Agarwal N & Chaturvedi VB (2019) Nutrients utilization, methane emission, immune function, blood metabolites and performance of buffalo calves fed Trachyspermum copticum seed oil. Indian J Ani Sci 89:63-67.
Peñalver P, Huerta B, Borge C, Astorga R, Romero R & Perea A (2005). Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family. APMIS 113:1-6.
Peng QY, Li JD, Li Z, Duan ZY & Wu YP (2016). Effects of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on growth performance, carcass traits and jejunal morphology in broiler chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 214:148-153.
Placha I, Ocelova V, Chizzola R, Battelli G, Gai F, Bacova K & Faix S (2019) Effect of thymol on the broiler chicken antioxidative defence system after sustained dietary thyme oil application. British poult sci 60:589-596.
Pourghanbari G, Nili H, Moattari A, Mohammadi A & Iraji A (2016) Antiviral activity of the oseltamivir and Melissa officinalis L. essential oil against avian influenza A virus (H9N2). VirusDis 27:170-178.
Pournazari M, AA-Qotbi A, Seidavi A & Corazzin M (2017) Prebiotics, probiotics and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) for broilers: performance, carcass traits and blood variables. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 30:3-10.
Pu J, Chen D, Tian G, He J, Zheng P, Mao X, Yu J, Huang Z, Luo J, Luo Y & Yu B (2020) Effects of benzoic acid, Bacillus coagulans and oregano oil combined supplementation on growth performance, immune status and intestinal barrier integrity of weaned piglets. Ani Nut.
Pukrop JR, Campbell BT & Schoonmaker JP (2019) Effect of essential oils on performance, liver abscesses, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot steers. Ani Feed Sci Technol 257:114296.
Puvača N, Petrović A, Tomić DH, Tatham EK, Čabarkapa I, Lević J & Sparagano O (2019). Influence of essential oils as natural poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) repellents. JATEM 2:168-77.
Puvača, N, Lika E, Cocoli S, Shtylla Kika T, Bursić V, Vuković G, Tomaš Simin M, Petrović A & Cara M (2020) Use of Tea Tree Essential Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) in Laying Hen’s Nutrition on Performance and Egg Fatty Acid Profile as a Promising Sustainable Organic Agricultural Tool. Sustainability 12: 3420.
Rafat Khafar K, Mojtahedin A, Rastegar N, Kalvani Neytali M & Olfati A (2019) Dietary Inclusion of Thyme Essential Oil Alleviative Effects of Heat Stress on Growth Performance and Immune System of Broiler Chicks. Iranian J Appl Ani Sci 9:509-517.
Rewatkar HN, Agashe JL & Jadhao GM (2019) The effect of supplementation of oregano oil and probiotic on blood biochemicals and immune response of broiler chicken. J Pharmacog Phytochem 8:1894-1897.
Ri CS, Jiang XR, Kim MH, Wang J, Zhang HJ, Wu SG, Bontempo V & Qi GH (2017) Effects of dietary oregano powder supplementation on the growth performance, antioxidant status and meat quality of broilerchicks. Italian J Ani Sci 16:246-252.
Ribeiro AD, Ferraz Junior MV, Polizel DM, Miszura AA, Gobato LG, Barroso JP, Susin I & Pires AV (2019) Thyme essential oil for sheep: effect on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, and growth. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 71:2065-2074.
Rinttilä T, Apajalahti J (2013). Intestinal microbiota and metabolites—Implications for broiler chicken health and performance1. J Appl Poult Res 22:647-658.
Rivaroli DC, del Mar Campo M, Sañudo C, Guerrero A, Jorge AM, Vital AC, Valero MV, do Prado RM & do Prado IN (2020) Effect of an essential oils blend on meat characteristics of crossbred heifers finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot. Anim Prod Sci 60:595-602.
Rivaroli DC, Guerrero A, Valero MV, Zawadzki F, Eiras CE, del Mar Campo M, Sañudo C, Jorge AM & do Prado IN (2016) Effect of essential oils on meat and fat qualities of crossbred young bulls finished in feedlots. Meat Sci 121:278-284.
Rotondi P, Colonna MA, Marsico G, Giannico F, Ragni M & Facciolongo AM (2018) Dietary Supplementation with Oregano and Linseed in Garganica Suckling Kids: Effects on Growth Performances and Meat Quality. Pak J Zoo 50:1421.
Roy S, Chaurvedi P & Chowdhary A (2015) Evaluation of antiviral activity of essential oil of Trachyspermum Ammi against Japanese encephalitis virus. Pharma Res. 7:263-267.
Ruben NT, Raphaël KJ, Désiré TT, Hervé MK, Doriane YM, Alexis T & Amir M (2018) Effects of dietary thyme and oregano essential oils entrapped in chitosan and Canarium charcoal stable matrix on growth performances in broiler chickens. Int J Inn Appl Stud; Rabat 22:114-122.
Salem A, El-Awady H, EL-Dein MT & Eisa D (2019) Effect Of Supplementation Of Aromatic Plants Oils On Immunity, Udder Health And Milk Production Of Friesian Cows. Slovenian Vet Res 56: 523-530.
Sarengaowa, Hu W, Feng K, Xiu Z, Jiang A & Lao Y (2019) Tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveal the inhibition mechanism of thyme essential oil against flagellum of Listeria monocytogenes. Food Res Inter 125:108508.
Sariözkan S, Güçlü BK, Konca Y, Aktuğ E, Kaliber M, Beyzi SB & Şentürk M (2020) The effects of essential thyme oil and vitamin combinations on performance, carcass quality and oxidation parameters in broilers exposed to heat stress. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi.
Schären M, Drong C, Kiri K, Riede S, Gardener M, Meyer U, Hummel J, Urich T, Breves G & Dänicke S (2017) Differential effects of monensin and a blend of essential oils on rumen microbiota composition of transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 100:2765-2783.
Sharafati Chaleshtori R, Rokni N, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Deris F & Salehi E (2015) Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.) essential oil in beef burger. J Agri Sci Technol 17:817-826.
Sharma H, Mendiratta SK, Agrawal RK, Gurunathan K, Kumar S & Singh TP (2017) Use of various essential oils as bio preservatives and their effect on the quality of vacuum packaged fresh chicken sausages under frozen conditions. LWT - Food Sci Technol 81:118-127.
Shokrollahi B, Amini F, Fakour S & Andi MA (2015) Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on weight, hematology and cell-mediated immune response of newborn goat kids. JARTS 116: 91-97.
Silva RB da, Pereira MN, Araujo RC de, Silva W de R & Pereira RAN (2020) A blend of essential oils improved feed efficiency and affected ruminal and systemic variables of dairy cows. Trans Anim Sci 4:182-193.
Simitzis PE (2017). Enrichment of Animal Diets with Essential Oils—A Great Perspective on Improving Animal Performance and Quality Characteristics of the Derived Products. Medicines 4:35.
Singh RK, Dey A, Paul SS, Singh M, Dahiya SS & Punia BS (2019) Associative effects of plant secondary metabolites in modulating in vitro methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids production and fermentation of feed in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Agroforest Sys 17:1-2.
Smeti S, Hajji H, Bouzid K, Abdelmoula J, Muñoz F, Mahouachi M & Atti N (2015) Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat’s production and metabolic statute. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:451-457.
Smeti S, Hajji H, Mekki I, Mahouachi M & Atti N (2018) Effects of dose and administration form of rosemary essential oils on meat quality and fatty acid profile of lamb. Small Rum Res 158:62-68.
Šojić B, Pavlić B, Zeković Z, Tomović V, Ikonić P, Kocić-Tanackov S & Džinić N (2018) The effect of essential oil and extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (food industry by-product) on the oxidative and microbiological stability of fresh pork sausages. LWT 89:749-755.
Souza VGL, Pires JR, Vieira ÉT, Coelhoso IM, Duarte MP & Fernando AL (2019) Activity of chitosan-montmorillonite bionanocomposites incorporated with rosemary essential oil: From in vitro assays to application in fresh poultry meat. Food Hydrocolloids 89:241-252.
Su G, Zhou X, Wang Y, Chen D, Chen G, Li Y & He J (2018) Effects of plant essential oil supplementation on growth performance, immune function and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs. Lipids in Healt Dis 17:139.
Su G, Zhou X, Wang Y, Chen D, Chen G, Li Y, He J (2020) Dietary supplementation of plant essential oil improves growth performance, intestinal morphology and health in weaned pigs. J Ani Phys Ani Nut 104:579-589.
Tapki I, Ozalpaydin HB, Tapki N, Aslan M & Selvi MH (2020) Effects of Oregano Essential Oil on Reduction of Weaning Age and Increasing Economic Efficiency in Holstein Friesian Calves. Pak J Zoo 52:745.
Tayeb IT, Artoshi NH & Sögüt B (2019) Performance of broiler chicken fed different levels thyme, adiantum, rosemary and their combination. Iraqi J Agri Sci 50:1522-1532.
Tekce E, Çınar K, Bayraktar B, Takma Ç & Gül M (2020) Effects of an Essential Oil Mixture Added to Drinking Water for Temperature-Stressed Broilers: Performance, Meat Quality, and Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances. J Appl Poult Res 29:77-84.
Teobaldo RW, De Paula NF, Zervoudakis JT, Fonseca MA, Cabral LS, Martello HF, Rocha JK, Ribeiro IJ & Mundim AT (2020) Inclusion of a blend of copaiba, cashew nut shell and castor oil in the protein-energy supplement for grazing beef cattle improves rumen fermentation, nutrient intake and fibre digestibility. Anim Prod Sci.
Thao NT, Wanapat M, Cherdthong A & Kang S (2014) Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 27:46-54.
Thao NT, Wanapat M, Kang S & Cherdthong A (2015) Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 28:951-957.
Tian Q & Piao X (2019) Essential Oil Blend Could Decrease Diarrhea Prevalence by Improving Antioxidative Capability for Weaned Pigs. Animals 10:847.
Tomkins NW, Denman SE, Pilajun R, Wanapat M, McSweeney CS, Elliott R (2015) Manipulating rumen fermentation and methanogenesis using an essential oil and monensin in beef cattle fed a tropical grass hay. Anim Feed Sci Technol 200:25-34.
Tongnuanchan P & Benjakul S (2014) Essential Oils: Extraction, Bioactivities, and Their Uses for Food Preservation. J Food Sci 79:1231-1249.
Ultee A, Bennik MHJ & Moezelaar R (2002) The Phenolic Hydroxyl Group of Carvacrol Is Essential for Action against the Food-Borne Pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl Env Microbiol 68:1561-1568.
Vendramini THA, Takiya CS, Silva TH, Zanferari F, Rentas MF, Bertoni JC, Consentini CEC, Gardinal R, Acedo TS & Rennó FP (2016) Effects of a blend of essential oils, chitosan or monensin on nutrient intake and digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Anim Feed Sci Technol
Wade M, Manwar S, Kuralkar S, Waghmare S & Ingle V (2018) Effect of thyme essential oil on performance of broiler chicken. J Ent Zoo Stud 6:25-28.
Wadhwa M & Bakshi MPS (2019) Effect of supplementing total mixed ration with ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) oil on the performance of buffalo calves. Indian J Ani Sci 89:424-430.
Wallace RJ (2004). Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites. Proc Nutr Soc 63:621-629.
Wang LM, Mandell IB & Bohrer BM (2020) Effects of feeding essential oils and benzoic acid to replace antibiotics on finishing beef cattle growth, carcass characteristics, and sensory attributes. Appl Ani Sci 36:145-156.
Wells JE, Berry ED, Guerini MN & Varel VH (2015) Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens. J Appl Microbiol 118:295-304.
Wells JE, Berry ED, Guerini MN & Varel VH (2015). Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens. J Appl Microbiol 118:295-304.
Witkowska D, Sowińska J, Murawska D, Matusevičius P, Kwiatkowska-Stenzel A, Mituniewicz T & Wójcik A (2019) Effect of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist on performance and physiological parameters in broiler chickens. South African J Ani Sci 49:29-39.
Xu YT, Liu Li, Long SF, Pan L & Piao XS (2018) Effect of organic acids and essential oils on performance, intestinal health and digestive enzyme activities of weaned pigs. Ani Feed Sci Technol 235:110-119.
Yalçin S, Eser H, Onbaşilar İ & Yalçin S (2020) Effects of dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves on performance, some egg quality traits and immunity in laying hens. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi.
Yang SY, Cao L, Kim H, Beak SE & Song KB (2018) Utilization of Foxtail Millet Starch Film Incorporated with Clove Leaf Oil for the Packaging of Queso Blanco Cheese as a Model Food. Starch – Stärke 70:1700171.
Yang WZ, Ametaj BN, Benchaar C & Beauchemin KA (2010). Dose responseto cinnamaldehyde supplementation in growing beef heifers: Ruminal and intestinal digestion. J Anim Sci 88:680-688.
Yang X, Xin H, Yang C & Yang X (2018) Impact of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance, digestive functions and immunity of broiler chickens. Ani Nut 4:388-393.
Yang YF, Zhao LL, Shao YX, Liao XD, Zhang LY, Lin LU & Luo XG (2019) Effects of dietary graded levels of cinnamon essential oil and its combination with bamboo leaf flavonoid on immune function, antioxidative ability and intestinal microbiota of broilers. J Integ Agri 18:2123-2132.
Yesilbag D, Biricik H, Cetin I, Kara C, Meral Y, Cengiz SS, Orman A & Udum D (2017) Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids. J Ani Phys Ani Nut 101:e67-e76.
Zengin H & Baysal AH (2015) Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thyme and Clove Essential Oils and Application in Minced Beef. J Food Proc Preserv 39:1261-1271.
Zhang Y, Liu X, Wang Y, Jiang P & Quek S (2016) Antibacterial activity and mechanism of cinnamon essential oil against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Food Control 59:282-289.
Zhou R, Wu J, Lang X, Liu L, Casper DP, Wang C, Zhang L & Wei S (2020) Effects of oregano essential oil on in vitro ruminal fermentation, methane production, and ruminal microbial community. J Dairy Sci 103:2303-2314.
Zhou R, Wu J, Zhang L, Liu L, Casper DP, Jiao T, Liu T, Wang J, Lang X, Song S & Gong X (2019) Effects of oregano essential oil on the ruminal pH and microbial population of sheep. PloS one 14:e0217054.
Zhu H, Du M, Fox L & Zhu MJ (2016) Bactericidal effects of Cinnamon cassia oil against bovine mastitis bacterial pathogens. Food Control. 66:291-299.
Most read articles by the same author(s)