| More

Teaching Vocabulary to Deaf Students Through Enriched Subtitling: A Case Study in Qatar

Views: 339 Downloads: 83


This interdisciplinary study examines the impact of using enriched subtitling (ES), within a total communication (TC) holistic approach to language learning, on the acquisition of vocabulary by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students.
The performance of the students in an experimental class, using an ES-based lesson, was compared to two classes using traditional educational methods, focusing on text reading and sign language. The classes were followed by three tests, one immediately after the class, and two other delayed tests, a day and a week later. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected and triangulated through class observations, student feedback, test results, focus group discussions, and interviews. Test results showed that the experimental class achieved the best results, supporting the research hypothesis that, when integrated in carefully planned lessons, ES can be a valuable tool to enhance vocabulary acquisition by deaf students.


Deaf education; Holistic (total communication) learning approach; Enriched Subtitling; Vocabulary Acquisition

Full Text:



Al Attiyah, A., & Mian, M. (2009). Disability in the state of Qatar. In C. A. Marshall, E. Kendall, M. E. Banks, & M. S. Gover (Eds.), Disabilities: Insight from across fields and around the world (Vol. 3, pp. 28–42). Westport: Praeger Perspectives.

Aldaher, A. (2017). Audiovisual Translation Raising Awarness Towards the Communication Need of Deaf Children (Master’s thesis). Hamad Bin Khalifa University.

Allen T. (1986). Patterns of academic achievement among hearing impaired students: 1974 and 1983. In A.N. Schildroth and M.A. Karchmer (Eds.), Deaf children in America (pp. 161-206). Boston, MA: College-Hill Press.

Althani, A.J. (Director). (2016). Kashta [Film]. Qatar: Film House.

Bravo, C. (2010). Text on screen and text on air: A useful tool for foreign language teachers and learners. In J.D. Cintas, A. Matamala & J. Neves (Eds.), New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility: Media for all 2. (269-284). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Bümen, N. T. (2007). Effects of the original versus revised Bloom’s Taxonomy on lesson planning skills: A Turkish study among pre-service teachers. International Review of Education, 53(4), 439–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-007-9052-1

Denton, D. M. (1972) A rationale for total communication. In T.J. O'Rouke (Ed.) Psycholinguistics and total communication: The state of the art (pp.53-61). Washington DC: American Annals of the Deaf.

Drasgow, E. (1993). Bilingual/Bicultural Deaf education: An overview. Sign Language Studies, (80), 243–266. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/26204676

Easterbrooks, S.R. (2010). Evidence-based curricula and practices that support development of reading skills. In M. Marschark & P.E Spencer (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of deaf studies in language. (pp. 111-126). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Easterbrooks, S. R. & Trussel J.W. (2016). Encouraging emergent reading in deaf and hard-ofhearing children. In M. Marschark & P.E Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of deaf studies in language. (pp. 377-392). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ehri, L.C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167-188. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0902_4

Foerster, A. (2010). Towards a creative approach in subtitling: A case study. In J.D. Cintas, A. Matamala & J. Neves (Eds.), New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility (pp. 81–98). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Fox, W. (2017). A proposed set of placement strategies for integrated titles. TRAlinea.Online Translation Journal, (Special Issue: Building Bridges between Film Studies and Translation Studies). Retrieved from http://www.intralinea.org/specials/article/a_proposed_set_of_placement_strategies_for_integrated_titles

Hands and Voices. (2014). Communication considerations: Total communication. Retrieved from


Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2008). Modeling reading vocabulary learning in deaf children in bilingual education programs. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(2), 155–174. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42658926

Hukoomi. (2018). The constitution. Retrieved March 9, 2018. Retrieved from http://portal.www.gov.qa/wps/portal/about-qatar

Koolstra, C. M., & Beentjes, J. W. J. (1999). Children’s vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(1), 51–60.

Kothari, B. (1998). Film songs as continuing education: Same language subtitling for literacy. Economic and Political Weekly, 33(39), 2507–2510.Retrived from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4407205

Kothari, B., Pandey, A., & Chudgar, A. R. (2004). Reading out of the “idiot box”: Same-language subtitling on television in India. Information Technologies & International Development, 2(1), 23–44. Retrieved from http://dev.itidjournal.org/index.php/itid/article/view/191

Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language learning. NY: Pergamon.

Krashen, S. D. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 440–464. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2307/326879

Kyle, F. E., & Harris M. (2006). Concurrent correlates and predictors of reading and spelling achievement in deaf and hearing school children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 11(3), 273-288.Retrived from https://0-www-jstororg.library.qnl.qa/stable/42658824

Kyle, F. E., & Harris, M. (2010). Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107(3), 229-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.04.011

Katan, D. (2018). "Free Free… Set them free". What deconstrained subtitles can do for AVT. In I. Ranzato and S. Zanotti (Eds.), Linguistic and cultural representation in audiovisual translation (pp.61-84). New York and London: Routeledge.

Lewis, G., Jones, B., Baker, C. (2012). Translanguaging: devoloping its conceptualization and contextualization. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18 (7), 655-670.

De Linde, Z., & Kay, N. (1999). Processing subtitles and film images. The Translator, 5(1), 45–60. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.1999.10799033

Lorch, E. P., & Anderson, D. R. (1979). The relationship of visual attention to children’s comprehension of television. Child Development, 50(3), 722–727. Retrived from https://doi.org/10.2307/1128938

Luckner, J., Sebald, A., Cooney, J., Young, J. &Muir, S. (2005/2006). An examination of the evidence-based literacy research in deaf education. American Annals of the Deaf 150(5), 443-454.

Mayer, C., & Trezek, B. J. (2015). Early literacy development in deaf children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mayer, C. (2016). Rethinking total communication: Looking back, moving forward. In M. Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language and education. vol.2, (32-44). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

McClarty, R. (2012). Towards a multidisciplinary approach in creative subtitling. MonTI. Monografías de Traducción e Interpretación, (4). Retrieved from http://www.redalyc.org/resumen.oa?id=265125413006

Mindel, E. D. (1974). Deaf education: A child psychiatrist’s view. Peabody Journal of Education, 51(3), 153–161. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/01619567409558519

Moores, D.F. (2010). The history of language and communication issues in deaf education. In M. Marschark & P.E. Spencer. The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language and Education. vol.2, (pp 17-30). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Neuman, S. B., & Koskinen, P. (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input: Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly, 27(1), 95–106. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2307/747835

Neves, J. (2005). Subtitling for deaf and hard of hearing (Doctoral dissertation) Roehampton University. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Neves, J. (2007). A world of Change in a changing world. In J. D. Cintas, P. Orero, & A. Remael (Eds.), Subtitling for the deaf, audio description, and sign language: Media for all. (pp. 89–98). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Neves, J. (2008). 10 fallacies about Subtitling for the d/Deaf and the hard of hearing. The Journal of Specialised Translation, (10), 128–143.Retrived from http://www.jostrans.org/issue10/art_neves.php

Neves, J. (2018). Subtitling for deaf and hard of hearing audiences (SDH): moving forward. In L. Perez-Gonzalez (Ed.), The Routeledge Handbook of Audiovisual Translation. (pp. 82-95). London: Routledge.

Nornes, A. M. (1999). For an abusive subtitling. Film Quarterly, 52(3), 17–34. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2307/1213822

Paul, P.V. (1996). Reading vocabulary and deafness. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 1(1), 3-15.Retrived from https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.deafed.a014279

Quigley, S. P., & Kretschmer, R. E. (1982). The Education of Deaf Children: Issues. Theory, and Practice. London: Edward Arnold.

Quigley, S. P., & Paul, P. V. (1984). Language and deafness. San Diego: College-Hill Press.

Remael, A. (2007). Sampling subtitling for the deaf and the hard-of- hearing in Europe. In J. D. Cintas, P. Orero, & A. Remael (Eds.), Subtitling for the deaf, audio description, and sign language: Media for All. (pp. 28–69). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Rodda, M., & Grove, C. (1987). Language, Cognition, and Deafness. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate

Romero-Fresco, P. (2013). Accessible filmmaking: Joining the dots between audiovisual translation, accessibility and filmmaking. The Journal of Specialised Translation, (20), 201–223. Retrived from http://www.jostrans.org/issue20/art_romero.php

Romero-Fresco, P. (Ed.). (2015). The reception of subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing in Europe. Bern: Peter Lang. Retrieved from


Romero-Fresco, P. (2018). Reception studies in live and pre-recorded subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing. In E. di Giovanni & Y. Gambier (Eds.), Reception studies and audiovisual translation. (pp. 199-224). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Sacks, O. (1990). Seeing voices: A journey into the world of the deaf. NY: Harper Pernnial.

Sala Robert, E. (2016). Creative subtitles: Subtitling for all (Doctoral dissertation). University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. Retrieved from http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/398140

Scheetz, N. A. (2012). Deaf education in the 21st century: Topics and trends. New Jersey: Pearson.

Scouten, E. (1984). Turning points in the education of deaf people. Danville, IL: The Interstate Printers and Publishers.

Searls, D. T., Mead, N. A., & Ward, B. (1985). The relationship of students’ reading skills to TV watching, leisure time reading, and homework. Journal of Reading, 29(2), 158– 162. Retrived from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40029643

Schlesinger. H. (1986). Total communication in perspective. In D. M. Luterman (Ed.) Deafness in perspective (87-116). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.

Streng, A. H., Kretschmer, R. R., & Kretschmer, J. L. W. (1978). Language, learning, and deafness: Theory, application, and classroom management. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Swanwick, R. 2016. Scaffolding learning through classroom talk: The role of translanguaging. In M. Marschark & P.E Spencer. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language. (pp. 420-430). New York: Oxford University Press.

Talaván, N. (2010). Subtitling as a task and subtitles as support: pedagogical applications. In J.D. Cintas, A. Matamala & J. Neves (Eds.), New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility: Media for All 2. (pp. 285-300). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

The Amiri Diwan of the State of Qatar. (2019). Legislations. Retrieved January 14, 2019. Retrieved from


Traxler, C. B., (2000). The Stanford achievement test, 9th edition: National norming and performance standards for deaf and hard of hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 5, 337-348. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article/5/4/337/387412

United Nations. (n. d.). Universal declaration of human rights. Retrieved at from http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html.

Zárate, S. (2010). Bridging the gap between deaf studies and AVT for deaf children. In J.D. Cintas, A. Matamala & J. Neves (Eds.), New Insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility. Media for all 2. (pp. 159–174).: Rodopi.

Zárate, S. (2014). Subtitling for deaf children: Granting accessibility to audiovisual programms in an educational way (Doctoral Dissertation) University College London, London. Retrieved from http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1455707/

Zárate, S. & Eliahoo, J. (2014). Word recognition and content comprehension of subtitles for television by deaf children. The Journal of Specialised Translation, (21), 133– 152.Retrived from



  • There are currently no refbacks.