| More

Aflatoxins in foods of animal origin

Views: 191 Downloads: 110


Anatoxins are produced by various types of Aspergillus spp. fungi in a wide variety of foods and feeds. Anatoxins are toxic to human and animals, acute and chronic. In humans, they can cause liver cancer, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Among the four main aflatoxins (B1? B2, Gx and G2), aflatoxin Βχ (AFBi) is the most frequently found in feeds and the most toxic one. The most important aflatoxin in foods of animal origin is aflatoxin M4 (AFM4), which is the principal hydroxylated metabolite of AFB! AFM4 is mainly found in milk from lactating animals consuming feed contaminated with AFB^ Surveys carried on the occurrence of AFM4 in raw milk in various countries all over the world during the past 15 years, showed that contamination levels were low in European Union and USA, but high in certain countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Other global surveys on the occurrence of AFM4 in foods of animal origin (meat, eggs etch) showed that the level of the toxin is low as compared to milk and dairy products. European Union has set the maximum residual limit (MRL) for AFM4 of 0.05 μg/kg and 0.025 μg/kg in raw milk and milk powder for infants, respectively. In order to protect the consumer's health, control measures should be applied to avoid contamination of feed and foods with aflatoxins.


Aflatoxins; AFB1; AFM4; milk; foods of animal origin

Full Text:



Ardic M, Karakaya Y, Atasever M, Adiguzel G (2009) Aflatoxin Ml levels of Turkish white brined cheese. Food Control, 20:196199.

Armstrong Β (1980) Epidemiology of cancer in the Peoples Republic of China. Intl J Epidemiol, 9:305-315.

Atroshi F, Rizzo A, Westermack T, Ali-Vehmas Τ (2002) Antioxidant nutrients and mycotoxins. Toxicol, 180:151167.

Aziz NH, Youssef YA (1991) Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxinproducing moulds in fresh and processed meat in Egypt. Food AdditContam, 8: 321-331.

Barnes JM (1970) Aflatoxin as health hazard. J Appi Bacteriol, 33:285-298.

Battacone G, Nudda A, Palomba M, Pascale M, Nicolussi Ρ, Pulina G (2005) Transfer of aflatoxin Bl from feed to milk and from milk to curd and whey in dairy sheep fed artificially contaminated concentrates. J Dairy Sci, 88:3063 -3069.

Berry C (1988) The pathology of mycology. J Pathol, 154:301-311.

Blanco JL, Domingues L, Gomez-Lucia E, Garayzabal JEE, Goyache J, Suarez G (1988) Behavior of aflatoxin during the manufacture, ripening and storage of Manchego-type cheese. J Food Sci, 53:13731376.

Brackett RE and Marth EH (1982) Association of aflatoxin Ml with casein. Lebensm Wiis Technol, 174:439-441.

Carvajal M, Bolanos A, Rojo F, Mendez I (2003) Aflatoxin Ml in pasteurized milk with different fat content in Mexico. J Food Prot, 66(10):1885-1892.

Chao TC, Maxwell SM, Wong SY (1991) An outbreak of aflatoxicosis and boric acid poisoning in Malaysia: a clinicpathological study. J Pathol, 164:225-233.

Codex Alimentarius (2000) Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants. CL1999/13 GEN-CX 0016 FAC-Agenda item 16a. ALINORM 99/37, paras 103-105. Draft maximum level for aflatoxin Ml in milk, 2024 March.

Commission Regulation (EC) (2006). No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of European Union, L 364, pp 524.

Diaz DE, Hagler Jr WM, Blackwelder JT, Eve JA, Hopkins BA, Anderson KL, Jones FT and Whitlow LW (2004). Aflatoxin binders II: Reduction of aflatoxin Ml in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed. Mycopathologia, 157:233241.

Dosako S, Kaminogawa S, Taneya S, Yamauchi Κ (1980) Hydrophobic surface-areas and net charges of alpha-Sl-casein, kappa casein and alpha-Sl-casein kappa-casein complex. J Dairy Res, 47(1):123-129.

Dragacci S, Gleizes E, Fremy JM, Candlish AAG (1995) Use of immunoaffinity chromatography as a purification step for the determination of aflatoxin Ml in cheeses. Food Addit Contam,12:59-65.

Eaton D, Ramsdell HS, Neal G (1993) Biotransformation of aflatoxins. In: Eaton D, Groopman JD (eds) The toxicology of aflatoxins:human health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. London:Academic Press, pp 45 - 72.

EFSA (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to aflatoxin Bl as undesirable substance in animal feed. The EFSA Journal, 39:1-27.

EFSA (2009) Effects on public health of an increase of the levels for aflatoxin total from 4 xg/kg to 10 xg/kg for tree nuts other than almonds, hazelnuts and pistachios - Statement of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00675. Adopted: 16 June 2009.

El - Kady IA, El-Maraghy SSM, Mostafa ME (1995) Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Mirobiol, 40:297-300.

Elgerbi E, Aidoo KE, Candlish AA and Tester RF (2004) Occurrence of aflatoxin Ml in radomly selected North African milk and cheese samples. Food Addit Contam, 21(6):592 - 597.

El-Sayed AMAA, Neamat-Allah AA, Soher, EA (2000) Situation of mycotoxins in milk, dairy products and human milk in Egypt. Mycotoxin Res,16:91-100.

Fernandez A, Belio R, Ramos JJ, Sanz MC, Saez Τ (1997) Aflatoxins and their matabolites in the tissues, faeces and urine from lambs feeding on a aflatoxin contaminated diet. J Sci Food Agric, 74:161-168.

Fernandez Α, Verde MT, Gascon M, Ramos JJ, Gomez J (1994) Aflatoxin and its metabolite residues in edible tissues from laying hens and broiler chickens fed a contaminated diet. J Food Sci Agric, 65:407-414.

Food and Drug Administration, USA (1996) Sec. 527.400 whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk-aflatoxin Ml (CPG 7106.210). FDA Compliance Policy Guides. Washington, p. 219.

Frobish RA, Bradley BD, Wagner DD, Longbradley PE, Hairston H (1986) Aflatoxin residues in milk of dairy-cows after ingestion of naturally contaminated grain. J Food Prot, 49(10):781-785.

Furtado RM, Pearson AM, Hogber MG, Miller ER (1979) Aflatoxin residues in the tissues of pigs fed a contaminated diet. J Agric Food Chem, 27:1351-1354.

Galvano F, Galofaro V, Galvano G (1996) Occurrence and stability of aflatoxin Ml in milk and milk products: A worldwide review. J Food Prot, 59:10791090.

Galvano F, Galofaro V, De Angelis A, Galvano M, Bognanno M, Galvano G (1998) Survey of the occurrence of aflatoxin Mlin dairy products marketed in Italy. J Food Prot, 61:738-741.

Galvano F, Piva A, Ritieni A, Galvano G (2001) Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: A review. J Food Prot, 64:120-131.

Gong YY, Hounsa A, Egal S (2004) Postweaning exposure to aflatoxin results in impaired child growth: A longitudinal study in Benin, West Africa. Environ Health Perspect, 112:133438.

Govaris A, Roussi V, Koidis PA, Botsoglou NA (2001) Distribution and stability of aflatoxin M-l during processing, ripening and storage of Telemes cheese. Food Addit Contam, 18:437-443.

Govaris A, Roussi V, Koidis PA, Botsoglou NA (2002) Distribution and stability of aflatoxin Ml during production and storage of yoghurt. Food Addit Contam, 19:1043-1050.

Hassanin NI (1994) Stability of aflatoxin Ml during manufacture and storage of yoghurt, yoghurt-cheese and acidified milk. J Sci Food Agric, 65:31-34.

Heinonen JT, Fisher R, Brendel Κ, Eaton DL (1996) Determination of aflatoxin Bl biotransformation and binding to hepatic macromolecules in human precision liver slices. Toxicol Appi Pharmacol, 136:17.

Herzallah SM (2009). Determination of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, meat and meat products using HPLC fluorescent and UV detectors. Food Chemistry 114:1141-1146.

IARC (1993) Some naturally occuring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins In: IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol.56, IARC Press, Lyon, France.

IARC (2002) Traditional Herbal Medicines, Some Mycotoxins, Naphthalene and Styrene. In: IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol. 82, IARC Press, Lyon, France.

ICMSF (1996) Toxigenic fungi: Aspergillus. In: Roberts TA, Baird- Parker AC, Tompkin RB (eds). Microorganisms in foods 5: microbiological specifications of food pathogens. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. London.

Iongh de H, Vies RO, Van pelt JG (1964) Milk of mammals fed an aflatoxin containing diet. Nature, 202:466-467.

Kabak B, Dobson ADW, Var I (2006) Strategies to Prevent Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Animal Feed: A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 46:593619.

Kamkar A (2005) A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin Ml in raw milk produced in Sarab city of Iran. Food Control,16 (Sep):593-599.

Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Eleftheriadou A, Mouratidou T, Katikou Ρ (2005) Determination of aflatoxin Ml in ewe's milk samples and the produced curd and Feta cheese. Food Control, 16:257 - 261.

Kim EK, Shon DH, Ryu D, Park JW, Hwang HJ, Kim YB (2000) Occurrence of aflatoxin Ml in Korean dairy products determined by ELISA and HPLC. Food Addit Contam, 17:59-64.

Klich MA and Pitt JI (1988) Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from Aspergillus parasiticus and other closely related species. Trans Br MycolSoc, 91:99-108.

Lafont P, Siriwardana M, Lafont J (1989) Genotoxity of hydroxyaflatoxins Ml and M4. Microbiol Ahmen Nutr, 7:1-8.

Lee LS, Dunn JJ, De Lucca AJ and Giegler A (1981) Role of lactone ring of aflatoxin Bl toxicity and Mutagenicity. Experentia, 37(1):16-20.

Martins ML and Martins HM (2004) Aflatoxin Ml in yoghurts in Portugal. Int J Food Microbiol, 91:315-317.

Masoero F, Gallo A Moschini M Piva G. and Diaz D (2007) Carryover of aflatoxin from feed to milk in dairy cows with low or high somatic cell counts. Animal, 1(9): 13441350.

JECFA, 2001. Safety Evaluation of Certain Mycotoxins in Food Prepared by the 56th meeting of the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 74/WHO Foods Additives Series 47.

Masri MS, Booth AN, Hsiegh DPH (1974) Comparative metabolic conversion of Aflatoxin Bl to Aflatoxin Mland Aflatoxin Ql by monkey, rat and chicken liver. Life Sci, 15:203- 207.

McLean M and Dutton MF (1995) Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update. Pharmac Ther, 65:163192.

MMWR (2004) Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning - Eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January - July 2004. MMWR, 53:790-793.

Montesano R, Hainaut P, Wild CP (1997) Hepatocellular carcinoma: From gene to public health. J Natl Cancer Inst, 89:184451.

Moschini M, Masoero F, Diaz DE, Gallo A, Pietri A, Piva G (2006) Plasma aflatoxin concentrations over time in bolus fed lactating dairy cows. J Animal Sci, 84 (Suppl. 1): 74-77.

Neal GE, Eaton DL, Judah DJ, Verma A (1998) Metabolism and toxicity of aflatoxins Ml and Bl in human-derived in Vitro systems. Toxicol Appi Pharmacol, 151:152-158.

Neal GE, Judah DJ, Stirpe F and Patterson DSP (1981) The formation of 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-aflatoxin Bl by the metabolism of aflatoxin Bl by liver microsomes isolated from certain avian and mammalian species and the possible role of this metabolite in the

acute toxicity of aflatoxin Bl. Toxicol Appi Pharmacol, 58(3):431-437.

Oliveira CAF, Kobashigawa E, Reis TA, Mestieri L, Albaquerque R, Correa Β (2000) Aflatoxin Bl residues in eggs of laying hens fed a diet containing different levels of the mycotoxin. Food Addit Contam,17:459-462.

Oliveira CAF, Rosmaninho JF, Castro AL, Butkeraitis P, Reis TA, Correa Β (2003) Aflatoxin residues in eggs of laying Japanese quail after long-term administration of rations containing low levels of aflatoxin Bl. Food Addit Contam, 20:648-653.

Oliveira CAF and Ferraz JCO (2007). Occurrence of aflatoxin Ml in pasteurised, UHT milk and milk powder from goat origin. Food Control 18: 375-378.

Orti DL, Grainger J, Ashley DL Hill RH (1989) Chromatographic and spectroscopic properties of hemiacetals and sterigmatocystin metabolites. J Chromatogr, 462:269-279.

Oswald IP, Marin DE, Bouhet S, Pinton P, Taranu I, Accensi F (2005) Immunotoxicological risk of mycotoxins for domestic animals. Food Addit Contam, 22:354-360.

Petterson DSP (1973) Metabolism as a factor in determining the toxic action of the afl. in different animal species. Food Cosmet Toxicol, 11:287.

Piérides M, El-Nezami, Peltonen Κ, Salminen S, Ahokas J (2000) Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind aflatoxin Ml in a food model. J Food Prot, 63:645-650.

Piva G, Pietri A, Galazzi L, Curto Ο (1998) Aflatoxin-Ml occurrence in dairy-products marketed in Italy. Food Addit Contam, 5(2): 133-139.

Price RL, Paulson JH, Lough OG, Gingg C, Kurtz AG (1985) Aflatoxin convertion by dairy-cattle consuming naturallycontaminated whole cottonseed. J Food Prot, 48 (1): 11-13.

Rasic JL, Skrinjar M, Markov S (1991) Decrease of aflatoxin Bl in yoghurt and acidified milks. Mycopathol, 113:117-119.

Rastogi S, Dwivedi PD, Khanna SK, Das M (2004) Detection of aflatoxin Ml contamination in milk and infant milk products from indian markets by Elisa. Food Control, 15:287-290.

Refai MK, Niazi ZM, Aziz NH, Khafaga NE (2003) Incidence of aflatoxin Bl in the Egyptian cured meat basterma and control by gamma - irradiation. Nahrung 47:377-382.

Rojas FJ, Jodral M, Gosalvez F, Pozo R (1991) Mycoflora and toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Spanish dry - cured ham. Int J Food Microbiol, 13:249-256.

Roussi V, Govaris A, Varagouli A, Botsoglou NA (2001) Occurrence of aflatoxin Mil in raw and market milk commercialized in Greece. Food Addit Cont, 19 (Sept):863-868.

Sassahara M, Pontes Netto D, Yanaka EK (2005) Aflatoxin occurrence in foodstuffs supplied to dairy cattle and afatoxin Ml in raw milk in the North of Parana state. Food Chem Toxicol, 43:981984.

SCF (1994) Standard Committee of Foods opinion on aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and Patulin. 94th Meeting of the SCF, European Commission, pp 1-6.

Scott PM (1989) Mycotoxigenic fungal contaminants of cheese and other Dairy products. In: Van Egmond HP (ed) Mycotoxins in dairy products, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp 193-259.

Scussel VM (2004) Aflatoxin and food safety: recent south American perspectives. J Toxicol, Tox Rev, 23(2&3):179 -216.

Shane SM (1994) Economic issues associated with aflatoxins. In: Eaton, DL and Groopman JD. (eds) The toxicology of aflatoxins: Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance. Academic Press. New York, pp 513-527.

Shephard GS (2003) Aflatoxin and food safety: recent African perspectives. J Toxicol Tox Rev, 22 (2&3):267 - 286.

Stoloff L (1983) Aflatoxin as a cause of primary liver-cell cancer in the United States: a probability study. Nutr Cancer, 5(3-4):165-186.

Tekinsen KK and Tekinsen OC (2005). Aflatoxin Ml in white pickle and Vanotlu (herb) cheeses consumed in southeastern Turkey. Food Control, 16:565568.

Turner PC, Collinson AC, Cheung YB, Gong YY, Hall AJ, Prentice AM, Wild CP (2007). Aflatoxin exposure in utero causes growth faltering in Gambian infants Inte J Epidemiol, 36:11191125.

Van Der Zijden ASM, Blanche koelensmid WAA and Boldinch J (1962) Aspergillus Flavus and Turkey X Disease. Nature, 195(15):1060-1962.

Van Egmond HP, Paulsch WE, Veringa HA, Schuller PL (1977) The effect of processing on the aflatoxin Ml content of milk and milk products. Archiv Instit Pasteur (Tunis), 4:381-390.

Veldman A, Meijs J AC, Borggreve G J, Heeresvandertol J J (1992) Carry-over of aflatoxin from cows food to milk. Anim Prod, 55 (Oct):163-168.

Virdis S, Corgioglou G., Scarano C, Pilo AL, De Santis EPL (2008). Occurrence of Aflatoxin Ml in tank bulk goat milk and ripened goat cheese. Food Control 19: 44-49.

Wang J and Groopman JD (1999) DNA damage by mycotoxins. Mutat Res, 424:167181.

Wild CP and Turner PC (2002) The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions. Mutagenesis, 17:47181.

Williams JH, Philips TD, Jolly PE, Stiles JK, Jolly CM, Aggarwal D (2004) Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. Am J Clin Nutr, 80:1106 -22.

Wiseman DW and Marth EH (1983) Behavior of aflatoxin Ml in yogurt, buttermilk and kefir. J Food Prot, 46:115-118.

Yaroglu T, Oruc HH, Tayar M (2005) Aflatoxin Ml levels in cheese samples from some provinces of Turkey. Food Control,16:883 - 885.

Yousef AE, Marth EH (1989) Stability and degradation of aflatoxin Ml. In: Van Egmond HP (ed) Mycotoxins in dairy products, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp 127-161.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 A. GOVARIS (Α. ΓΚΟΒΑΡΗΣ)