| More

Ochratoxin A in foods of animal origin

Views: 111 Downloads: 112
A. GOVARIS (Α. ΓΚΟΒΑΡΗΣ), N. SOLOMAKOS (Ν. ΣΟΛΩΜΑΚΟΣ), A. PAXARA (Α. ΠΕΞΑΡΑ)
A. GOVARIS (Α. ΓΚΟΒΑΡΗΣ), N. SOLOMAKOS (Ν. ΣΟΛΩΜΑΚΟΣ), A. PAXARA (Α. ΠΕΞΑΡΑ)

Abstract


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus ochraceus καιPénicillium verrucosum. OTA shows a nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic action against animals and humans. In humans, OTA is implicated in the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy. OTA can be mainly found in foods of animal origin as a result of indirect transmission from animals exposed to naturally contaminated feed. Results from research works in various countries showed that the  pork meat was the most important source of human contamination with OTA, as compared to other products of animal origin. Sausages containing blood or pork kidney presented the highest amounts of OTA among other food products of animal origin. The presence of OTA in cow's milk was rather low, since the bacteria in the rumen of ruminants are capable of splitting OTA to ochratoxin a, which is generally accepted as no toxic metabolite. The European Union has not yet set limits of ochratoxin in foods of animal origin, in contrast to these of limits in foods of plant origin.


Keywords


Ochratoxin A; mycotoxin

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abarca ML, Accensi F, Bragulat MR, Cabanes FJ (2001) Current importance of ochratoxin Α-producing Aspergillus spp. J Food Protect. 64: 903-906.

Abouzied MM, Horvath AD, Podlesny PM, Regina NP, Metodiev VD, Kamenova-Tozeva RM, Niagolova ND, Stein ND, Petropoulos EA, Ganev VS (2002) Ochratoxin concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, Food Addit Contamin. 19:755-764.

Atroshi F, Rizzo A, Westermack T, Ali-Vehmas Τ (2002) Antioxidant nutrients and mycotoxins. Toxicol. 180:151-167.

Bailly JD, Tabuc C, Querin A, Guerre Ρ (2005) Production and stability of patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin and cyclopiazonic acid on dry cured ham. J Food Prot 68:1516-1520.

Bennett JW and Klich M (2003) Mycotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 16:497-516.

Biro K, Solti L, Barna-Vetró I, Bagó G, Glavits R, Szabó E, Fink Gremmels J (2002) Tissue distribution of ochratoxin A as determined by HPLC and ELISA and histopathological effects in chickens, Avian Pathol. 31:141-148.

Blank R, Rolfs JP, Südekum K-H, Fröhlich AA, Marquardt RR, Wolffram S (2003) Effects of chronic ingestion of ochratoxin A on blood levels and excretion of the mycotoxin in sheep, J Agric Food Chem. 51:6899-6905.

Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A, Olsen M, Oskarsson A, Palminger I, Huit KV (1993) Ochratoxin A in cow's milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 76: 842-846.

Canela R, Viladrich R, Velazquez CA, Sanchis V (1994) A survey of porcine kidneys and chicken liver for ochratoxin A in Spain. Mycopathol. 125:29-32.

Chiavaro E, Lepiani A, Colla F, Bettoni Ρ, Pari E, Spotti E (2002α) Ochratoxin A determination in ham by immunoaffinity clean-up and quick fluorometric method, Food Addit Contamin. 19:575-

Chiavaro E, Lepiani A, Colla F, Bettoni Ρ, Pari E, Spotti E (2002ß) Ochratoxin A determination in ham by immunoaffinity clean-up and quick fluorometric method, Food Addit Contamin. 19:575-581.

Chu FS (1971) Interaction of ochratoxin A with bovine serum albumin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 147:359.

Ciegler A, Fennell DI, Sansing GA, Detroy RW, Bennett GA (1973) Mycotoxin-producing strains of Pénicillium viridicatum: Classification into subgroups. Appi Microbiol. 26: 271-278.

Curtui VG, Gareis M (2001) A simple HPLC method for the determination of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and BBB in blood serum of swine, Food Addit Contamin. 17:635-643.

Curtui VG, Gareis M, Usleber E, Märtlbauer E (2001) Survey of Romanian slaughtered pigs for the occurrence of mycotoxins ochratoxin A and Β and zearalenone, Food Addit Contamin. 8:730-738.

Danilovic V, Djurillic M, Mokranjac M, Stojimirovic Β (1957) Presse Med. 65:2039-2040.

Ε.Ε. Οδηγία No 123/2005 (2005) European Commission 2005. Commission regulation (EC) No 123/2005 of 26 January 2005 amending regulation (EC) No 466/2001 as regards ochratoxin A.

Official Journal of the European Union L25:3-5.

Ε.Ε. Οδηγία No 472/2002 (2002) European Commission 2002. Commission regulation (EC) No 472/2002 of 12 March 2002 amending regulation (EC) No 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs (Official Journal of the European Union L 75 of 16.3.2002)

EC (European Commission) (1997) SCOOP, task 3.2.2. Assessment of dietary intake of ochratoxin A by the population in EU member states. European Commission, Directorate-General for Industry, Reports on tasks for scientific co-operation EUR 17523 EN. Revised version, November 1997.

EC (European Commission) (2002) SCOOP, task 3.2.7. Assessment of dietary intake of ochratoxin A by the population of EU Member States. European Commission, Directorate-General Health and Consumer Protection, Reports on tasks for scientific operation. January, http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/scoop/3.2.7_en.pdf.

EFSA (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to aflatoxin Bl as undesirable substance in animal feed. EFSA J. 39:1-27.

EMAN (European Mycotoxin Awaraness Network) (2005) Fact sheets on evaluation and risk issues, fact sheet 1, decontamination, processing effect and risk analysis aspects. Available online at: http://193.132.190.215/eman2/index.asp

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2004) Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 81. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Fink-Gremmels J (2005) Conclusions from the workshops on Ochratoxin A in Food: Recent developments and significance, organized by ILSI Europe in Baden (Austria), 29 June-1 July 2005. Food Addit Contam. 22:1-5.

Fortza N, Negoescu M (1961) Cercet Med. 1:217-221. Frisvad JC, Lund F, Elmholt S (2005) Ochratoxin A producing Pénicillium verrucosum isolates from cereals reveal large AFLP fingerprinting variability. J Appi Microbiol. 98: 684-692.

Gareis M and Scheuer R (2000) Ochratoxin A in meat and meat products. Arch Lelebensm. 51: 102-104.

Hesseltine CW, Vandegraft EE, Fennell DI, Smith ML, Shotwell OL (1972) Aspergilli as ochratoxin producers. My col. 64: 539-550.

Höhler D, Südekum K-H, Wolffram S, Fröhlich AA, Marquardt RR (1999) Metabolism and excretion of ochratoxin A fed to sheep, J Anim Sci. 77:1217-1223.

Hope R, Aldred D, Magan Ν (2005) Comparison of environmental profiles for growth and deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum on wheat grain. Lett Appi

Microbiol. 40:295-300.

Huff JE (1991) Carcinogenicity of ochratoxin A in experiments animals. In Mycotoxins Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumour, eds Castegnaro M, Plestina R, Chernozemsky in, Bartsch Η, pp 229-244. IARS, Lyon.

IARC (1993) Ochratoxin A. In IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans; Some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins, pp. 489-521. Lyon, France:World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer.

ICMSF (1996) Toxigenic fungi: Aspergillus. In: Roberts TA, Baird- Parker AC, Tompkin RB, editors. Microorganisms in foods 5:microbiological specifications of food pathogens. International

Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. London.

JECFA (2001) Ochratoxin A. In: Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food. WHO Food Additives Series. No. 47. Geneva: WHO. pp 281-415.

Jorgensen Κ and Petersen A (2002) Content of ochratoxin A in paired kidney and meat samples from healthy Danish slaughter pigs. Food Addit Contamin. 19:562-567.

Jorgensen Κ (2005) Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data. Food Addit Contam. 22:26-30.

Kabak B, Dobson ADW, Var I (2006) Strategies to Prevent Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Animal Feed: A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 46:593-619.

Kontaxi M, Eckhardt Β, Hagenbuch Β, Stieger Β, Meier PJ, Petzinger E. (1996) Uptake of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in liver cells occurs via the cloned organic anion transporting polypeptide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 279:1507-1513.

Krogh P, Axelsen NH, Elling F, Gyrd-Hansen N, Hald B, Hyldgaard-Jensen J, Larsen AE, Madsen A, Mortensen HP, Moller Τ, Petersen OK, Ravnsko V, Rostgaarg M, Aalund Ο (1974) Experimental porcine nephropathy. Changes of renal function and structure induced by ochratoxin A condaminated feed, Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 246:1.

Krogh P, Elling F, Gyrd-Hansen N, Hald B, Larsen AE, Lillehoj EB, Madsen A, Mortensen HP, Ravnskov U (1976) Experimental porcine nephropathy: changes of renal function and structure

perorally induced by crystalline ochratoxin A, Acta Pathol

Microbiol Scandinavica. 84:429.

Kuiper-Goodman Τ and Scott PM (1989) Uncertanties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: Aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 68:1017-1024.

Lai M, Semeniuk G, Hesseltine CW (1970) Conditions for production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus species in synthetic medium. Appi Microbiol. 19: 542-544.

Land CJ and Huit Κ (1987) Mycotoxin production by some wood associated Pénicillium spp. Lett Appi Microbiol. 4: 41-44.

Li S, Marquardt RR, Fröhlich AA (1998) Confirmation of ochratoxins in biological samples by conversion into methyl esters in acidified methanol. J Agric Food Chem. 46: 4307-4312.

Madhyastha SM, Marquardt RR, Fröhlich AA, Platford G, Abramson D (1990) Effects of different cereal and oilseed substrates on the growth and production of toxins by Aspergillus alutaceus and Pénicillium verrucosum. J Agric Food Chem. 38:1506-1510.

Marquardt RR and Fröhlich AA (1992) A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis. J Anim Sci. 70:3968-3988.

Matrella R, Monaci L, Milillo MA, Palmisano F, Tantino MG (2006) Ochratoxin A determination in paired kidneys and muscle samples from swines slaughtered in southern Italy. Food Cont. 17:114-117.

McLean M and Dutton MF (1995) Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update. PharmacTher. 65:163-192.

Monaci L, Tantillo G, Palmisano F (2004) Determination of ochratoxin A in pig tissues by liquid-liquid extraction/clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 378: 1777-1782.

Murphy PA, Hendrich S, Landgren C, Bryant CM (2006) Food Mycotoxins: An update. J Food Sci. 7LR51- R65.

Northolt MD, Van Egmond HP, Paulsch WE (1979) Ochratoxin A production by some fungal species in relation to water activity and temperature. J Food Protect. 42:485-490.

Nunez F, Rodriguez NM, Bermudez ME, Cordoba JJ, Asensio MA (1996) Composition and toxigenic potential of the mould population on dry-cured Iberian ham. Int J Food Microbiol. 32:185-197.

O'Brien E and Dietrich DR (2005) Ochratoxin A: The continuing enigma. Crit Rev Toxicol. 35: 33-60.

Petkova-Bocharova T, Castegnaro M (1991) Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary system tumours in Bulgaria, in: Castegnaro M, Plestina R, Dirheimer G, Chernozemsky IN, Bartsch H (Eds.), Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumours, IARC Scientific Publications No. 115, IARC, Lyon 1991, pp. 135-137.

Petzinger E, Ziegler Κ (2000) Ochratoxin A from a toxicological prospective, J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 23:91-98.

Petzinger E and Weidenbach A (2002) Mycotoxins in the food chain: The role of ochratoxins. Livest Prod Sci. 76:245-250.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Petkova-Bocharova T, Chernozemsky IN, Castegnaro M (2002) Food Addit. Contam. 19: 282-302.

Piskorska-Pliszczynska J and Juszjiewicz Τ (1990) Tissue deposition and passage into eggs of ochratoxin A in Japanese quail. Environm. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 10: 8-10

Pitt JJ, Basilico JC, Abarca ML, Lopez C (2000) Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi. Med Mycol. 38:41-46.

SCF (1998) Opinion on ochratoxin A. Expressed on 17 September 1998, the Scientific Committee on Food, the European Commission, http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/outl4_en.html

Skaug MA (1999) Analysis of Norwegian milk and infant formulas for ochratoxin A. Food Addit. Contam. 16:75-78.

Skaug MA, Heiland I, Sorvoli Κ, Saugstad OD (2001) Presence of ochratoxin A in human milk in relation to dietary intake. Food Addit Contamin. 18:321-327.

Stander MA, Nieuwoudt TW, Steyn PS, Shephard GS, Creppy EE, Sewram V (2001) Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in vervet monkeys (Cerkopithecus aethiops). Arch Toxicol. 75:262-269.

St0rmer FC, St0ren O, Hansen CE, Pederson JL, Aasen AJ (1983) Formation of (4R)- and (4S)-4- hydroxyochratoxin A and 10-hydroxyochratoxin A by rabbit liver microsomes, Appi Environ

Microbiol. 45:1183-1187.

Stormer FC, Lee Τ (1995) Effects of ochratoxin A upon early and late events in human T-cell proliferation, Toxicol. 95:45-50.

Sweeney MJ, White S, Dobson ADW (2000) Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Irish J Agric Food Res. 39:235-244.

Tanchev I, Evstatiev ZV, Dorosiev G, Pencheva ZH, Zvetkov G (1956) Savr Med. 7:14 -29.

Tsuda M, Sekine T, Takeda M, Cha SH, Kanai Y, Kimura M, Endou H (1999) Transport of ochratoxin A by renal multispecific organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 289:1301-1305.

Valenta H, Goll M (1996) Determination of ochratoxin A in regional samples of cow's milk from Germany. Food Addit. Contam. 13:669- 676.

van der Merwe KJ, Steyn PS, Fourie L (1965) Ochratoxin A, a toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus ochraceus. Wilh. Nature. 205: 1112-1113.

Varga J, Kevei E, Rinyu E, Teren J, Kozakiewicz Ζ (1996) Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species. Appi Environ Microbiol. 62: 4461-4464.

Verma RJ and Shalini M (1998) Hyperglycemia induced in rabbits exposed to ochratoxin, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 60:626-631.

Wang J and Groopman JD (1999) DNA damage by mycotoxins. Mutat Res. 424:167-181.

World Health Organization (WHO) (1990) Environmental health criteria 105: Selected mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, trichothecenes, ergot. Geneva: WHO.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 A. GOVARIS (Α. ΓΚΟΒΑΡΗΣ), N. SOLOMAKOS (Ν. ΣΟΛΩΜΑΚΟΣ), A. PAXARA (Α. ΠΕΞΑΡΑ)