| More

Equine Laminitis: A retrospective study of 55 cases (2000-2004)

Views: 366 Downloads: 568
I. PAPAKONSTANTIS (Ι. ΠΑΠΑΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΗΣ), N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ), M. PATSIKAS (Μ. ΠΑΤΣΙΚΑΣ), A. DESIRIS (Α. ΔΕΣΙΡΗΣ)
I. PAPAKONSTANTIS (Ι. ΠΑΠΑΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΗΣ), N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ), M. PATSIKAS (Μ. ΠΑΤΣΙΚΑΣ), A. DESIRIS (Α. ΔΕΣΙΡΗΣ)

Abstract


Laminitis is a common equine disease. In order to have a good prognosis, prompt therapy is essential. Fifty-five cases of equine laminitis, that were treated in the Clinic of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, were included in this study. More specifically, the clinical presentation and the diagnostic approach are described and the therapeutic protocol is evaluated. At the same time, the literature is reviewed as far as the epidemiology, the pathogenesis, the clinical signs, the diagnosis and the treatment is concerned. It is worth mentioning that several therapeutic protocols have been put forward for the treatment of laminitis, perhaps due to the fact that its pathogenesis is still under dispute. Prolonged rest, frog support, cols hosing of the feet, severe diet, administration of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug were the key points of the protocol of this study that led to extremely good results for the majority of the cases.


Keywords


Laminitis; horse; hoof

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen D., Clark E.S., Moore J.N., Prasse K.W. (1990) Evaluation of equine digital starling forces and hemodynamics during early laminitis. Am J Vet Res 51 (12): 1930-1934.

Allen D., White N.A., Foerner J.F., Gordon B.J. (1986) Surgical management of chronic laminitis in horses: 13 cases (1983-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 189 (12): 1604-1606.

Bailey R.S. (2004) The pathogenesis of acute laminitis: fitting more pieces into the puzzle. E.V.J. 36 (3): 199-203.

Bailey R.S., Bâillon M.L., Rycroft A.N., Harris P.A., Elliot J. (2003) Identification of equine cecal bacteria producing amines in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload. Appi Environ Microbiol. 69(4):2087-2093.

Bailey R.S. Rycroft A.N, Elliot J. (2002) Production of amines in equine cecal contents in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload. J Anim Sci. 80(10): 2656 - 2662.

Baxter G.M. (1986) Equine laminitis caused by distal displacement of the distal phalanx: 12 cases (1976-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 189 (3): 326-329.

Boosman R., Nemeth F. (1988) Pathogenesis and drug therapy of acute laminitis in horses: a review. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 113 (22): 1237-1246.

Brumbaugh G.W., Sumano Lopez H., Hoyas Sepulveda M.L. (1999) The pharmacologic basis for the treatment of developmental and acute laminitis. Vet.Clin. North.Am.Equine Pract. 15 (2):345-362.

Butler, Colles, Dyson, Kold & Poulos (1996) Foot, Pastern and Fetlock. In: Clinical Radiology of the Horse. Blackwell Science, Oxford. 25 - 51.

Clarke L.L., Garner H.E., Hatfield D. (1982) Plasma volume, electrolyte and endocrine changes during onset of laminitis hypertension in horses. Am J Vet Res 43 (9): 1551-1555.

Polliti C.C. (1999) Laminitis. In: Equine Medicine and Surgery 5th ed. Edited by Cohalan, Mayhew, Merritt, Moore. Mosby, Missouri. 1521 -1541.

Cohen N.D., Parsn E.M., Seahorn T.L., Carter G.K. (1994) Prevalence and factors associated with development of laminitis in horses with duodenitis/ proximal jejunitis: 33 cases (1985-1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 204 (2): 250-254.

Comben N., Clark R.J., Sutherland D.J .(1984). Clinical observations on the response of equine hoof defects to dietary supplementation with biotin. Vet Ree 115 (26): 642-645.

Cornelisse J.C, Robinson E.N. (2004) Glucocorticoid therapy and equine laminitis : fact or fiction? E.V.E. 16 (2): 90-93.

Cripps P.J., Eustace R.A (1999a) Radiological measurements from the feet of normal horses with relevance to laminitis. E.V.J. 31 (5): 427-432.

Cripps P.J., EustaceR.A. (1999b) Factors involved in the prognosis of equine laminitis in the U.K. E.V.J. 31 (5): 433-442.

Curtis S., Ferguson D.W., Luikart, R., Ovnicek G. (1999) Trimming and shoeing the chronically affected horse Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract 15 (2): 463-480.

Dorn C.R.,Garner H.E., Coffman J.R., Hahn A.W., Tritschler L.G. (1975) Castration and other factors affecting the risk of equine laminitis. Cornell Vet 65 (1): 57-64.

Eastman T.G., Honnas CM., Hague B.A., Moyer W., von der Rosen H.D (1999) Deep digital flexor tenotomy as a treatment for chronic laminitis in horses: 35 cases (1997-1998) J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214 (4): 517-519.

Eaton S.A., Allen D., Eades S.C., Schneider D.A. (1995) Digital starling forces and hemodynamics during early laminitis induced by an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans Nigra) in horses. Am J Vet Res 56 (10): 1338-1344.

Edinger H., Miller I., Stanek C, Gemeiner M. (1992) Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis. Dutch Tieararztl Wochenschr 99 (10): 426-430.

Ferraro G.L. (1990) Lameness diagnosis and treatment in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. 6 (l):63-84.

Field J.R., Jeffcott L.B. (1989) Equine laminitis - Another hypothesis for pathogenesis. Med. Hypotheses 30 (3): 203-210.

French K., Polliti C.C., Pass M.A. (2000) Pharmacokinetics and metabolic effects of triamkinolone acetonide and their possible

relationships to glucocorticoid-induced laminitis in horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 23 (5): 287-292.

French K.R., Polliti C.C. (2004a) Equine laminitis: cleavage of laminin 5 associated with basement membrane dysadhesion. E.V.J. 36 (3): 242-247.

French K.R., Polliti C.C. (2004b) Equine laminitis: glucose deprivation and MMP activation induce dermo-epidermal separation in vitro. E.V.J. 36 (3): 261 - 266.

Galey F.D., Twardock A.R., Goetz T.E., Scaeffer D.J., Hall J.O., Beasley V.R. (1990) Gamma scintigraphic analysis of the distribution of perfusion of blood in the equine foot during black walnut (juglans nigra)-induced laminitis. Am J Vet Res 51 (4): 688-695.

Galey F.D.,Whiteley H.E., Goetz T.E., Kuenstler A.R., Davis CA., Beasley V.R. (1991) Black walnut (Juglans Nigra) toxicosis: a model for equine laminitis. J. Comp. Pathol. 104 (3): 313-326.

Garner H.E., Moore J.N., Johnson J.H., Clark L., Amend J.F., Tritschler L.G., Coffman J.R., Sprouse R.F., Hutcheson D.P., Salem C.A. (1978) Changes in the cecal flora associated with

laminitis. Equine Vet J 10 (4): 249-252.

Geyer Η., Schulze J. (1994) The long-term influence of biotin supplementation on hoof horn quality in horses. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 136 (4): 137-149.

Goetz T.E. (1989) The treatment of laminitis in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 5 (1): 73-108.

Grosenbaugh D.A., Morgan S.J., Hood D.M. (1999) The digital pathologies of equine laminitis. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 419 - 436.

Herthel D., Hood D.M (1999) Clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis of chronic laminitis. Vet. Clin. North. Am.Equine Pract 15 (2): 375-394.

Hinkley K.A., Fearn S., Howard B.R., Henderson I.W. (1995) Near infrared spectroscopy of pedal haemodynamics and oxygenation in normal and laminitic horses. E.V.J. 27 (6): 465 - 470.

Hood D.M. (1999a) Laminitis in the horse. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 287 - 294.

Hood D.M .(1999b) The mechanisms and consequences of structural failure of the foot. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract 15 (2): 437-461.

Hood D.M. (1999c) The pathophysiology of developmental and acute laminitis. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 321- 343.

Hood D.M. (1999d) Laminitis as a systemic disease. Vet Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 481 - 494.

Hunt R.J. (1996) Diagnosing and treating chronic laminitis in horses. Vet Med 91: 1025 - 1032.

Hunt R.J. (1993) A retrospective evaluation of laminitis in horses: E.V.J. 25 (1): 61-64.

Hunt R.J., Allen D., Baxyter G.M., Jackman J.R., Parks A.H. (1991) Mid-metacarpal deep digital flexor tenotomy in the management of refractory laminitis in horses. Vet. Surg. 20 (1): 15 - 20.

Johnson P.J., Tyagi S.C, Katwa L.C, Ganjam V.K., Moore L.A., Kreeger J.M., Messer N.T. (1998) Activation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases in equine laminitis. Vet. Ree. 142

(15): 392 - 396.

Johnson P.J., Kreeger J.M., Keeler M., Ganjam V.K., Messer N.T. (2000) Serum markers of lamellar basement membrane degradation and lamellar histopathological changes in horses affected with laminitis. E.V.J. 32 (6): 462 - 468.

Johnson P.J., Messer N.T.,Ganjam V.K. (2004) Cushing's syndrome, insulin resistance and endocrinopathic laminitis E.V.J. 36 (3): 194-198.

Kabbadias D. (1956) Εικονογραφημένο Βοτανολογικό και Φυτολογικό Λεξικό, τόμος Ι - IX, Αθήνα.

Koblik P.D., O'Brien T.R., Coyne C.P. (1988) Effect of dorsopalmar projection obliquity on radiographic measurement of distal phalangeal rotation angle in horses with laminitis. J Am Vet

Med Assoc 192 (3): 346 - 349.

Kyaw-Tanner M., C.C.Pollitt. (2004) Equine laminitis: increased transcription of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) occurs during the developmental phase. E.V.J. 36 (3): 221 - 225.

McCluskey M.J., Kavenogh P.B. (2004) Clinical use of triamcinolone acetonide in the horse (205 cases) and the incidence of glycocorticoid - induced laminitis associated with its use. E. V.E.

(2): 86-89.

Menzies -Gow N.J., Bailey S.R., Katz L.M., Marr CM.,Elliot J. (2004) Endotoxin-induced digital vasoconstriction in horses: associated changes in plasma concentrations of vasoconstrictor mediators. E.V.J. 36 (3): 273 - 278.

Molyneux G.S., Haller C.J., Mogg K., Polliti C.C. (1994) The structure, innervation and location of arteriovenous anastomoses in the equine foot. E.V.J. 26 (4): 305 - 312.

Moore J.N., Allen D., Clark E.S. (1989) Pathophysiology of acute laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 5 (1): 67 - 72.

Moore P.M., Eades S.C, Stokes A.M.(2004) Evidence for vascular and enzymatic events in the pathophysiology of acute laminitis: which pathway is responsible for initiation of this process in

horses? E.V.J. 36 (3): 204 - 209.

Morgan S.J., Grosenbaugh D.A., Hood D.M.(1999) The pathophysiology of chronic laminitis. Pain and anatomic pathology. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 395-417.

Nixon (1996). Laminitis and Contracture Deformity. In: Equine Fracture Repair. Saunders, Philadelphia. 367 - 370.

Obel (1948) Studies on the histopathology of acute laminitis. Vet-Stockholm: 1 - 50.

O'Grady S.E. (2002) Managing chronic laminitis using "glue-on" shoeing technology. E.V.E. 14(3): 157-162.

Papadopoulos F (1998). Ενδονυχίτιδα. In: Χειρουργική των Κατοικίδιων Ζώων, τόμος Α. Εκδόσεις Κυριακίδη, Θεσσαλονίκη. 384 - 390.

Parks Α.Η., Balch O.K., Collier M.A. (1999) Treatment of acute laminitis. Supportive therapy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 15 (2). 363-374

Parks A.H. (2003) Treatment of acute laminitis. E.V.E. 15 (5): 273 - 280.

Peremans K.,Vershooten F., De Moor Α., Desmet P. (1991) Laminitis in the pony : conservative treatment vs dorsal hoof wall resection. E.V.J. 23 (4): 243 - 246.

Polliti C.C., Daradka M. (1998a) Equine laminitis basement membrane pathology: loss of type iv collagen, type vii collagen and laminin immunostaining. Equine Vet J Suppl 1998 26: 139-144.

Polliti C.C., Pass M.A., Polliti S. (1998b) Batimastat (BB-94) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases of equine laminitis. Equine Vet J Suppl 26: 119-124.

Polliti C.C. (1996) Basement membrane pathology : a feature of acute equine laminitis. Equine Vet J 28 (1): 38 - 46.

Polliti C.C.,Van Eps A.W. (2004) Prolonged, continuous distal limb cryotherapy in the horse. E.V.J. 36 (3):-216 - 220.

Polzer J., Slater M.R. (1997) Age, breed, sex and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. Prev. Vet. Med. 29 (3): 179 -184.

Redden R.F (2001) Possible therapeutic value of digital venography in two laminitic horses. E.V.E. 13 (3): 125 - 127.

Reed S.M., Bayly W.M. (2004) Equine Internal Medicine- Saunders Riegel J.Ronald, Hakola E. Susan (1996) Illustated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse -

Equistar Publications, Limited - Σελ. 104-110, 141-151.

Ritmeester A.M., Blevins W.E., Ferguson D.W., Adams S.B. (1998) Digital perfusion, evaluated scintigraphically and hoof wall growth in horses with chronic laminitis treated with egg bar -heart bar shoeing and coronary grooving. Equine Vet J Suppl 26: 111-118.

Baxter G.M. (1997) Laminitis. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine 4th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. 737 - 743.

Slater M.R., Hood D.M., Garter G.K.(1995) Descriptive epidemiological study of equine laminitis. E.V.J. 27 (5): 364 - 367.

Sloet van Oldruitenborgh - Oosterbaan M.M (1999) Laminitis in the horse : a review. Vet Q 21 (4): 121 -127.

Stashak S.T. (2002) Laminitis. In: Adam's Lameness in Horses 5thed -Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 645 - 662.

Stick J.A., Jahn H.W. Scott E.A.,Robinson N.E.(1982) Pedal bone rotation as a prognostic sign in laminitis of horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 180 (3): 251-253.

Swanson T.D. (1999) Clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis of acute laminitis. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Equine Pract. 15 (2): 311-319

Trout D.R., Hornof W.J., Linford R.L., O'Brien T.R. (1990) Scintigraphic evaluation of digital circulation during the developmental and acute phases of equine laminitis. Equine Vet J. 22 (6): 416 - 421.

Weiss D.J., Trent A.M., Johnston G. (1995) Protrombotic events in the prodormal stages of acute laminitis in horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 56 (8): 986 -991.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 I. PAPAKONSTANTIS (Ι. ΠΑΠΑΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΗΣ), N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ), M. PATSIKAS (Μ. ΠΑΤΣΙΚΑΣ), A. DESIRIS (Α. ΔΕΣΙΡΗΣ)