| More

Equine colitis Χ

Views: 75 Downloads: 58
N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ)
N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ)

Abstract


Colitis Χ is an acute or peracute colitis of unknown origin, which is characterized by a sudden, watery diarrhea that is usually accompanied by symptoms of hypovolemic shock and leads to death in less than 24 hours. Although colitis X has been studied extensively, the causative factor has not been clarified yet and prognosis is average to poor, as mortality could reach 90-100%. Still, mortality rate could fall to 75%, if treatment is imminent and aggressive. Occasionally the disease has been attributed to viruses, parasites, bacteria, use of antibiotics and sulfonamides and heavy metal poisoning. Stress is considered as an aggravating

factor for colitis X. The clinical signs are similar to those described for other forms of acute- peracute colitis. Diarrhea and abdominal pain constitute the main discoveries, but at the same time tachykardia, tachypnea, weak pulse, congested or cyanotic mucous membranes and increased capillary refill time are noted. In most cases, colitis X leads to death between 4 to 14 hours. As far as the laboratory findings are concerned, the most important finding is the leucopenia, initially characterized by neutropenia, which might evolve in neutrophilia. Moreover, haemoconcentration is noted with an increase in the packed cell volume, whilst the

total proteins are initially increased, but changes into a lower than normal value. The most significant laboratory finding in colitis X is the increase of total Cortisol concentration in blood plasma.Histopathologically, the mucosa of the large colon is hemorrhagic, necrotic and covered with fibrohemorrhagic exudate, while the submucosa, the muscular tunic and the local lymphonodes are edematous. The treatment of colitis X should be dire and aggressive, including administration of fluids, electrolytes and blood plasma, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs and antibiotics. Preventing dehydration is of paramount importance. The application

of nutritional measures is important. More specifically, parenteral or normal feeding could be used to address the exacerbated metabolism of the sick horse. Finally, the use of probiotics is considered beneficial in the restoration of the normal intestinal flora. The most common probiotics contain Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.


Keywords


colitis X; horse

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams Η. R.(2001), Opioid Agonists and Antagonists". In "Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics". Iowa State Press, 8th Edition, Iowa, USA, pp293-4

Arroyo L.G., Weese J.S. Staempfli H.R. (2004) Experimental Clostridium difficile enterocolitis in foals. J Vet Intern Med. 18 (5): 734-738.

Bertone J.J. (1995) Disorders of the large intestine. In The Horse: Diseases and Clinical Management. Edited by Kobluk C.N., Ames T.R., Geor RJ. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. pp 322-325

Borriello SP, Carman RJ. (1983) Association of iota-like toxin and Clostridium spiroforme with both spontaneous and antibioticassociated diarrhea and colitis in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol., Mar; 17(3):414-418.

Desrochers A.M., Dolente B.A., Roy M.F., Boston R., Carlisle S (2005) Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of horses with acute enterocolitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 227(6): 954 - 959.

Divers T.J.. (2002), Acute diarrhea. In "Manual of Equine Gastroenterology". Edited by Mair T., Divers T., Ducharme N. W.B. Saunders, UK, pp 405-412.

Einstein R, Jones R.S, Knifton A, Starmer G.A. (1994),"Drugs which affect the stomach". In "Principles of veterinary therapeutics", Longman Scientific & Technical, UK, pp: 271 – 273

Feary D.J., Hassel D.M. (2006) Enteritis and colitis in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 22(2): 437 – 479

Graham R., Brueckner AL. (1919), Studies in Forage Poisoning: The Relation of B. botulinus to Forage Poisoning or Cerebrospinal Meningitis in Horses. J Bacteriol., Jan;4(l):l-21.

Jones S.L., Spier S.J. (1998) Colitis X. In "Equine Internal Medicine". Edited by Reed S.M. and Bayly W.M. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. pp. 677

Keir A.A., Staempfli H.R., Crawford J. (1999) Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed. Can Vet J. 40(10): 718 - 720.

Lekkas Stefanos (2003) Alimentary System (chapter.2). In Pathology of Domestic Animals, Book Β', 2nd edition, Synchroni Paideia, Thessaloniki:pp:247 - 248 (in Greek).

Murray MJ.(1997): "Acute colitis". In "Current therapy in equine medicine 4", W.B. Saunders Comp., Philadelphia, pp 197 – 203

Nicpo_ J., Czerw P., Zawadzki W. (2000) Research of pathomechanism and therapy of colitis X. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Veterinary Medicine, vol. 3(2).

Onderdonk A.B. (1985) Experimental models for ulcerative colitis. Digestive diseases and sciences 30(12): 40S - 44S

Prescott J.F., Staempfli H.R.,Barker I.K., Delaney K. (1988) A method for reproducing fatal idiopathic colitis (colitis X) in ponies and isolation of a Clostridium as a possible agent. Equine Vet J. 20(6):417-420.

Schiefer H.B. (1981) Equine colitis "X", still an enigma? Can Vet J. 22 (5): 162-165.

Stratton-Phelps M., Fascetti A. J. (2003 5th edition) Colitis. In "Current Therapy in Equine Medicine". Edited by Robinson N.E. Saunders, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. pp 723 – 724

Taha S., Johansson O., Jonsson S., Heimer D., Krovacek Κ (2007). Toxin production by and adhesive properties of Clostridium difficile isolated from humans and horses with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 30(3): 163-174.

Tillotson K., Traub-Dargatz J.L. (2003) Colonic flora modulation. Vet. Clin North Am 19: 604 – 607

Umemura T., Ohishi H., Ikemoto Y., Satoh H., Fujimoto Y. (1982) Histopathology of colitis X in the horse. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi. 44(5): 717-724.

Whitlock R.H. (1986) Colitis: differential diagnosis and treatment. Equine Vet J. 18(4): 278 - 283.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 N. DIAKAKIS (Ν. ΔΙΑΚΑΚΗΣ)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.