| More

The applications of biotechnology in animal feeding: A critical overview

Views: 237 Downloads: 263


An effort is made in this article to present the applications of biotechnology as regards the improvement of nutritive value and the development of novel feeds as well as the production of various types of feed additives. With respect to raw materials, quality upgrading by bio technological means has been attempted through lignocellulose breakdown or protein enrichment. In addition, reference is made to bioproteins and feeds derived from transgenic plants, particularly those resistant to herbicides. In turn, reference is made to aminoacids as products of industrial fermentation. Furthermore, various feed additives, products of biotechnology, such as enzymes, antibiotics, probiotics, but also means for depression of methanogenesis in the forestomachs of ruminants, as well as silage agents, like inoculants and enzymes, are commented upon. In certain cases, reference is made to the issue of efficacy of biotechnology products when used in animal nutrition and the subject of feed safety. Finally, because of the need for licensing these products in order to be circulated, reference is made to the provisions of Community legislation governing the marketing of feeds. The article concludes with some thoughts on the future of the sector of application of biotechnology in the case of animal nutrition.


animal nutrition; biotechnology; raw materials; additives; feed safety

Full Text:



Adams CA (2001) Interactions of feed enzymes and antibiotic growth promoters in broiler performance. Cah Options Mediterr, 54:71-74

Aida Κ, Chibata I, Nakayama K, Takinami Κ and Yanada Η (1986) Biotechnology of Aminoacid Production, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Altenbach SB, Kuo CC, Staraci LC, Pearson KW, Weinwright C, Georgesku A and Townsend J (1992) Accumulation of a Brazilnut albumin in seeds of transgenic canola results in enhanced

levels of seed protein methionine. Plant Mol Biol, 18:235-245

Armstrong DG (1997) Objectives of the feed manufacturers conference from a scientific point of view. Cah Options Mediterr, 26:15-22

Aspiotis Ν (1968) Biochemistry. Thessaloniki

Aumaitre A (2001) Feeds derived through modern biotechnology: Principle, safety and substantial equivalence. Cah Options Mediterr, 54:129-139

Beever DE and Kemp CF (2000) Safety issues associated with the DNA in animal feed derived from genetically modified crops: A review of scientific and regulatory procedures. Nutr Abst Rev,


Bergero D, Romboli I, Sacchi Ρ, Turi RM and Ladetto G (1993) The use of Virginiamycin and Flavomycin in diets for Muscovy ducklings. Arch Gefluegelk, 57:131-135

Bevan M (1984) Binary Agrobacterium vectors for plant transformation. Nucleic Acids Res, 12:8711-8721

Boulter D (1993) Insect pest control by copying nature using genetically engineered crops. Phytochemistry, 34:1453-1466

Buracewska L and Buracewski S (1997) Nutritional effects in pigs fed diets supplemented with aminoacids. In: Laplace JP, Février C and Barbeau A (eds). Digestive Physiology in Pigs. EAAP Publication no 88, INRA, Paris, 387-390

Chesson A (1993) Probiotics and other intestinal mediators. In: Cole DJA, Wiseman J and Varley MA (eds). Principles of Pig Science. Nottingham University Press, 197-214

Damron BL, Wilson HR and Fell RV (1991) Growth and performance of broiler breeders fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate and zinc bacitracin. Poultry Sci, 70:1487-1492

Dekker J and Comstock G (1992) Ethical and environmental considerations in the release of herbicide resistant crops. Agric Human Values, 9:31-43

Du Puis E (2000) Not in by body: rBGH and the rise of organic milk. Agric Human Values, 17:285-295

EEC (1970) Council Directive 70/524 for additives used in animal nutrition. Offic J Eur Comm, L 270,14.12.70,1-24

EEC (1982) Council Directive 82/471 for certain products used in animal nutrition. Offic J Eur Comm, L 213, 21.07.82,1-12

EU (2002) Regulation No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and Council establishing the food safety law. Offic J Eur Union, L 31, 01.02.02,1-24

EU (2003a) Regulation No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and Council for genetically modified foods and feeds. Offic J Eur Union, L 268,18.10.03,1-23

EU (2003b) Regulation No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and Council for labeling and traceability of genetically modified foods and feeds. Offic J Eur Union, L 268,18.10.03, 24-28

EU (2003c) Regulation No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and Council for additives used in animal nutrition. Offic J Eur Union, L 268,18.10.03, 29-43

Forbs Β (1996) BSE The Facts: Mad Cow Disease and the Risk to Mankind. CorgiBooks, London

Goransson L (1997) Alternatives to feed antibiotics. In: Garnsworthy PC and Wiseman G (eds). Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, 45-46

Guillot JF (2001) Consequences of probiotics release in the intestine of animals. Cah Options Mediterr, 54:17-21

Hedegaard A (2001) Danish approach on swine production with no antibiotics. Cah Options Mediterr, 54:23-28

Johnson DE, Hill TM, Carmean BR, Lodman DW and Ward GM (1991) New perspectives on ruminant methane emissions. In: Wenc C and Boessinger M (eds). Energy Metabolism of Farm

Animals. ΕΤΗ, Zurich, 376-379

Kung L Jr (1992) Use of additives in silage fermentation. In: Directfed Microbial Enzyme and Forage Additive Compedium, Miller Publishing Co., Minnetonka, Minnesota, 31-35

Loerch SC and Oke BO (1989) Rumen protected aminoacids in ruminant nutrition. In: Friedman M (ed). Absorption and Utilization of Aminoacids. Vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 187-200

MAFF (1997a) Antimicrobial Feed Additives. Report from the Commission on Antimicrobial Feed Additives, SOU 1997:132, Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries Publication, Stockholm

MAFF (1997b) Can you use less antibiotics in feed ? Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries Publication, Stockholm

Marchard J and Vandenplas Y (2000) Microorganisms administered in the benefit of the host: Myths and facts. Eur J Gastroent Hepat, 12:1077-1088

Marquardt RR and Bedford MR (2001) Future Horizons. In: Bedford MR and Partridge GG (eds). Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition. CAB International, Oxon, UK, 389-398

Mateos GG, Lazaro R and Mendel Ρ (2001) Feeding strategies for intensive livestock production without in feed antibiotic growth promoters. Cah Options Mediterr, 54:11-16

McDonald P, Edwards RA and Greenhalgh JFD (1988) Animal Nutrition. Longman Scientific and Technical, London

Mephan Β (1996) Food Ethics. Rootledge, London

Mountzouris K, Kouseris I, Xypoleas I and Fegeros Κ (2003) Effects of the inclusion of fructo- or galacto- oligosaccharides in the diet of growing pigs. Anim Sci Rev, Special Issue 28:112-113

Panopoulos Ν (1999) Genetically modified plants. Tribune of Agriculture Association of Larissa, 36:32-34

Pusztai A (2000) The need for rigorous risk assessment in GMOs. Chem Indust, 8:280

Reed ID (1989) Solid state fermentation for biological delignification. Enz Microb Technol, 11:786-803

Roberfroid MB (2000) Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr, 71:1682-1687

Rogdakis E (1992) The use of recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone in dairy cattle production. Anim Sci Rev, Special Issue 11:13-33

Sève Β and Hess V (2000) Aminoacid digestibility in formulation of diets for pigs: Present interest and limitations, future prospects. In: Garnsworthy PC and Wiseman J (eds). Recent Advances in

Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 167-181

Sheppy C (2001) The current feed enzyme market and likely trends. In: Bedford MR and Partridge GG (eds). Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition. CAB International, Oxon, UK, 1-10

Singh K, Rai SN, Singh GP and Gupta BN (1989) Solid state fermentation of urea-ammonia treated straw and rice straw with Coprinus fimetarius. Indian J Microbiol, 29:371-376

Smokovitis A (1997) Topics on physiology of animal production. Thessaloniki

Sonnewald U, Schaewen A and Willmitzer L (1993) Subcellular manipulation of sucrose metabolism in transgenic plants. J Exp Bot, 44:293-296

Spais A (1997) Feeds and Rations. "Synchroni paideia" publishers, Thessaloniki

Spoelstra SF (1991) Chemical and biological additives in forage conservation. In: Pahlow G and Honing H (eds). Forage

Conservation Towards 2000. Institute of Grassland Forage Research, Braunschweig, Germany, 48-70

Tomasik PJ and Tomasik Ρ (2003) Probiotics and Prebiotics. Cereal Chem, 80:113-117

Van Nevel C and Demeyer D (1995) Feed additives and other interventions for decreasing methane emissions. In: Wallace RJ and Chesson A (eds). Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and

Animal Feeding. VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 329-349

Vasil V, Castilo AM, Fromm NE and Vasil IK (1992) Herbicide resistant fertile transgenic weed plants obtained by microprojectile bombardment of regenerable embryonic callus. Biotechnology, 10:667-674

Villa-Komaroff L, Efstratiadis A, Broome S, Lomedico P, Tizard R, Nabet SP, Chick WL and Gilbert W (1978) A bacterial clone synthesizing proinsuline. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 75:3727-3731

Watson JD and Crick FH (1953) Molecular structure of nucleic acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature, 171:737-738

Weinland Ρ (1988) Principles of solid state fermentation. In: Zadrazil F and Reininger Ρ (eds). Treatment of Lignocellulosics with White Rot Fungi. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 64-76

Wilkinson JM and Stark BA (1992) Silage in Western Europe. 2nd ed., Chalcombe Publications, Canterbury, UK

Williams PEV and Kelly JM (1994) Animal production and pollution problem. In Thacker PA (ed.). Livestock Production for the 21st Century: Priorities and Research Needs. University of

Saskatchewan, Canada, 159-186

Young VR and Scrimshaw NS (1975) Clinical studies on the nutritional value of SCP. In: Tannenbaum SR and Wang DIC (eds). Single Cell Protein II. MIT, MA, USA, 564-576

Zadrazil F (1985) Screening of fungi for lignin decomposition and conversion of straw into feed. Angew Botanic, 59:433-542

Zadrazil F, Puniya AK and Singh Κ (1993) Studies on the effect of different gas compositions on degradation characteristics of crop residues and resulting digestibility with Pleurotus sajor-caju.

Indian J Microbiol, 33:249-252

Zervas G, Kalaisakis Ρ and Fegeros C (2000) Farm Animal Feeding. Stamoulis Publishers, Athens

Zoiopoulos PE (1998a) Modified animal feeds must be put to the test. Nature, 394:823

Zoiopoulos PE (1998b) Keep it clean: Biotech companies should pay for independent research. New Scientist, 2161:59


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 P. ZOIOPOULOS