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A new extremely hazardous viral disease in southeast Asia which affects both swine and humans

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E. D. TZIKA (Ε. Δ. ΤΖΗΚΑ), K. SAOULIDIS (Κ. ΣΑΟΥΛΙΔΗΣ), K. ALEXOPOULOS (Κ. ΑΛΕΞΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ), S. C. KYRIAKIS (Σ.Κ. ΚΥΡΙΑΚΗΣ)
E. D. TZIKA (Ε. Δ. ΤΖΗΚΑ), K. SAOULIDIS (Κ. ΣΑΟΥΛΙΔΗΣ), K. ALEXOPOULOS (Κ. ΑΛΕΞΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ), S. C. KYRIAKIS (Σ.Κ. ΚΥΡΙΑΚΗΣ)

Abstract


Since the end of 1998, incidents of a serious viral encephalitis have been reported in Malaysia and recently in Singapore, a 50% of which led to death. According to the updated information on this new disease, its transmission is related to swine. At first, it was believed that cause of the encephalitis was the virus of the Japanese encephalitis type B. However, after the proper laboratory examinations, it was proved that a new, unknown virus was related to the etiology of the incidents. This virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and has many common characteristics with the Hendra virus, without being the actual one. The first name attributed to the virus was Hendra like virus, but recently the name Nipah virus prevails.


Keywords


Nipah virus; encephalitis; human, swine

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References


Committee to Advise on Tropical and Travel (1998): Statement on Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. Canada Communicable Disease Report, Vol. 24, August 15, 1998. Internet site: http://www.Hc - sc.gc.ca /main /lede /web/publicat /ccdr /98vol24 /24sup /acs3.html

Chu, R M., Joo, H S (1992): Japanese Β encephalitis in: E.D. Leman, Diseases of swine, 7th Edition, Wolfe Publishing Ltd, England

Chua Kaw Bing, Lam Sai Kit (1999): Factsheets about a new Paramyxovirus isolated during the viral encephalitis outbreak in Negri Sembilan. Malaisian Medical Association Newsletter, 29:3

O' Sullivan, JD, Allworth AM, Paterson DL, Snow TM, Boots R, Gleeson LJ, Gould AR, Hyatt AD and Bradfield J. (1997): Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. The Lancet, 349, p. 93-95

Ministry of Health, Singapore (1999): Joint press release: Hendra-like virus infection confirmed in abattoir workers. Internet site: http://www.gov.sg /mon /releases /hendra.htmi

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA (1999): Update: Outbreak of Nipah Virus-Malaisia and Singapore, 1999, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, April 30,1999,48(16)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Media Relations Atlanta, USA (1999): Fact sheets: Hendralike illness in Malaysia and Singapore. Internet site:

http://www.cdc.gov /od/ oc /media /fact /hendra.htm


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