| More

Production of low-salt restructured Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) using microbial transglutaminase/caseinate system

Views: 201 Downloads: 170


Low-salt restructured fish products without cooking were prepared from Mediterranean horse mackerel using varying levels of NaCl (0-control, 10 and 20 g/Kg) and microbial transglutaminase (MTG) (0-control, 5 and 10 g/Kg). Restructured products with the highest textural strength and sensory acceptability were obtained at 1% MTG and 2% NaCl. The use of MTG made the low salt (1%) product comparable to one prepared with 2% NaCl only. WHC was not affected by MTG at 0% NaCl. The microbiological analysis (Total Viable Bacteria, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests a relatively short shelf-life (< 4 days) at refrigeration temperature (2±2ºC). The cooked restructured products received more favourable scores with increased levels of MTG and NaCl.


cold-binding; low-salt; Mediterranean horse mackerel muscle; microbial transglutaminase; restructured

Full Text:



Aeschlimann D, Paulsson M (1994) Transglutaminases: Protein cross-linking enzymes in tissues and body fluids. Thromb Haemostasis 71(4):402-415.

Ando H, Adachi M, Umeda K, Matsuura A, Nonaka M, Uchio R, Tanaka H, Motoki M (1989) Purification and characteristics of a novel transglutaminase derived from microorganisms. Agr Biol Chem Tokyo 53:2613-2617.

Andrés-Bello A, García-Segovia P, Ramírez JA, Martínez-Monzó J (2011) Production of cold-setting restructured fish products from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) using microbial transglutaminase and regular and low-salt level. CyTA J Food 9(2): 121-125.

Anonymous (1983) Structured Foods with the Algin/Calcium Reaction. Kelco Division of Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ.

Beltran-Lugo AI, Maeda-Martínez AN, Pacheco-Aguilar R, Nolasco-Soria HG, Ocaño-Higuera VM (2005) Physical, textural, and microstructural properties of restructured adductor muscles of 2 scallop species using 2 cold-binding systems. J Food Sci 70(2):E78-E84.

Boles JA, Shand PJ (1999) Effects of raw binder system, meat cut and prior freezing on restructured beef. Meat Sci 53:233-239.

Bourne MC (1978) Texture profile analysis. Food Technol 32(7):62-65.

Brennan JG (1980) Food texture measurement. In: Developments in Food Analysis Techniques-2. RD King (edn) Appl Sci Pub, Essex, UK, pp 1-78.

Carballo J, Ayo J, Jiménez-Colmenero F (2006) Microbial transglutaminase and caseinate as cold set binders: influence of meat species and chilling storage. LWT-Food Sci Technol 39(6):692-699.

Carballo J, Mota N, Barreto J, Jiménez-Colmenero F (1995) Binding properties and colour of Bologna sausages made with varying fat levels, protein levels and cooking temperatures. Meat Sci 41:301-313.

Cardoso C, Mendes R Vaz-Pires P, Nunes ML (2010) Effect of salt and MTGase on the production of high quality gels from farmed sea bass. J Food Eng 101: 98-105.

Chai T, Chen C, Rosen A, Levin RE (1968) Detection and incidence of specific species of spoilage bacteria on fish. II. Relative incidence of Pseudomonas putrefaciens and fluorescent pseudomonas on haddock fillets. Appl Microbiol 16:1738-1741.

Chen CM, Huffman DL, Egbert WR (1992) Textural properties and color characteristics of restructured beef steaks with selected binders and nonmeat adjuncts. J Muscle Foods 3:301-321.

Chen CM, Trout GR (1991) Sensory, instrumental texture profile and cooking properties of restructured beef steaks made with various binders. J Food Sci 56:1457-1460.

Chytiri S, Chouliara I, Savvaidis I.N, Kontominas MG (2004) Microbiological, chemical and sensory assessment of iced whole and filleted aquacultured rainbow trout. Food Microbiol 21:157-165.

Clarke AD, Sofos JN, Schmidt GR (1988a) Effect of algin/calcium binder level on various characteristics of structured beef. J Food Sci 53:711-726.

Clarke AD, Sofos JN, Schmidt GR (1988b) Influence of varying Ph and algin/calcium binders on selected physical and sensory characteristics of structured beef. J Food Sci 53:1266-1277.

Cofrades S, López- López I, Ruiz-Capillas C, Triki M, Jiménez-Colmenero F (2011) Quality characteristics of low-salt restructured poultry with microbial transglutaminase and seaweed. Meat Sci 87: 373-380.

De Jong GAH, Koppelman SJ (2002) Transglutaminase catalyzed reactions: Impact on food applications. J Food Sci 67(8):2798-2806.

Del Valle FR, Gonzalez-Inigo JL (1968) A quick-salting process for fish: Behavior of different species of fish with respect to the process. Food Technol 22:1135-1138.

Dimitrakopoulou MA, Ambrosiadis JA, Zetou FK, Bloukas, JG (2005) Effect of salt and transglutaminase (TG) level and processing conditions on quality characteristics of phosphate-free, cooked, restructured pork shoulder. Meat Sci 70:743-749.

Directive (EEC) No. 89/107 (1989) Concerning food additives authorized for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 040:27-33.

Ensor SA, Sofos JN, Schmidt GR (1990) Effects of connective tissue on algin restructured beef. J Food Sci 55(4):911-914.

Esguerra CM (1995) The cold-set binder process. Food Technol NZ 30: 21-23.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2002) GRAS Notice No. GRN 000095. Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Gómez-Guillén C, Solas T, Montero P (1997) Influence of added salt and non-muscle proteins on the rheology and ultrastructure of gels made from minced flesh of sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Food Chem 58:193-202.

Gonçalves AA, Gonzalez Passos M (2010) Restructured fish product from white croacker (Micropogonias furnieri) mince using microbial transglutaminase. Brazil Arch Bio Tech 53(4): 987-995.

González-Fandos E, García-Linares MC, Villarino-Rodríguez, A, García-Arias MT, García-Fernández MC (2004) Evaluation of the microbiological safety and sensory quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processed by the sous vide method. Food Microbiol 21:193-201.

González-Fandos E, Villarino-Rodríguez A, García-Linares MC, García-Arias MT, García-Fernández MC (2005) Microbiological safety and sensory characteristics of salmon slices processed by the sous vide method. Food Control 16:77-85.

Gram L, Trolle G., Huss HH (1987) Detection of specific spoilage bacteria from fish stored at low (0˚C) and high (20˚C) temperatures. Int. J Food Microbiol 4(1):65-72.

Gregersen T (1978) Rapid method for distinction of Gram-negative from gram-positive bacteria. Eur J Appl Microbiol 5:123-127.

Hammer GF (1998) Microbial transglutaminase and diphosphate in finely comminuted cooked sausage. Fleischwirtschaft 78(11):1155-1162.

Hennigar CJ, Buck EM, Hultin HO, Peleg M, Vareltzis K (1989) Mechanical properties of fish and beef gels prepared with and without washing and sodium chloride. J. Food Quality 12:155.

Herbert RA, Hendrie MS, Gibson DM, Shewan JM (1971) Bacteria active in the spoilage of certain seafoods. J Appl Bacteriol 34:41-50.

Hongsprabhas P, Barbut S (1999) Effect of pre-heated whey protein level and salt on texture development of poultry meat batters. Food Res Int 32:145-149.

Hugh R, Leifsons E (1953) The taxonomic significant of fermentative versus oxidative Gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol 66:24-66.

Huss HH, Dalgaard D, Gram L (1997) Microbiology of fish and fish products. In: (eds: Luten JB, Børresen T, Oehlenschläger J) Sea food from producer to consumer, Integrated Approach to Quality, Elsevier Science BV, The Netherlands, pp. 413-430.

Icekson I, Apelbaum A (1987) Evidence for transglutaminase activity in plant tissue. Plant Physiol 84:972-974.

Ibrahim Sallam K (2007) Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon. Food Control 18:566-575.

Jarmoluk A, Pietrasik Z (2003) Response surface methodology study on the effects of blood plasma, microbial transglutaminase and κ-carrageenan on pork batter gel properties. J Food Eng 60:327-334.

Jay JM (1986) Microbial spoilage indicators and metabolites. In: (eds: Pierson MD, Stern NJ) Food-borne microorganisms and their toxins: Developing Methodology, Marcel Decker, New York and Basel, pp. 219-240.

Jørgensen BR, Gibson DM, Huss HH (1988) Microbiological quality and shelf life prediction of chilled fish. Int J Food Microbiol 6:295-307.

Kanaji T, Ozaki H, Takao T, Kawajiri H, Ide H, Motoki M, Shimonishi Y (1993) Primary structure of microbial transglutaminase from Streptoverticillium sp. strain s-8112. J Biol Chem 268(16):11565-11572.

Karlou-Riga C (2000) Otolith morphology and age and growth of Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish Res 46(1-3):69-82.

Kerry JK, O’Donnell A, Brown H, Kerry JP, Buckley DJ (1999) Optimization of transglutaminase as a cold-set binder in low-salt beef and poultry comminuted meat products using response surface methodology. Proceedings of the 45th International Congress of meat science and technology (Yokohama, Japan), pp. 140-141.

Kilic B (2003) Effect of microbial transglutaminase and sodium caseinate on quality of chicken döner kebab. Meat Sci 63:417-421.

Kim S-H, Carpenter JA, Lanier TC, Wicker L (1993) Polymerization of beef actomyosin induced by transglutaminase. J Food Sci 58:473-474, 491.

Kovacs N (1956) Identification of Pseudomonas pyocyanea by the oxidase reaction. Nature. London 178:703.

Kuraishi C, Sakamoto J, Soeda T (1996) The usefulness of transglutaminase for food processing. In: (eds: Takeoka GR, Teranishi R, Williams PJ, Kobayashi A) Biotechnology for improved foods and flavors, ACS symposium series, 637:29-38.

Kuraishi C, Sakamoto J, Yamazaki K, Susa Y, Kuhara C, Soeda T (1997) Production of restructured meat using microbial transglutaminase without salt or cooking. J Food Sci 62(3):488-490.

Kuraishi C, Yamazaki K, Susa Y (2001) Transglutaminase: its utilization in the food industry. Food Rev Int 17(2):221-246.

Means WJ, Clarke AD, Sofos JN, Schmidt GR (1987) Binding, sensory and storage properties of algin/calcium structured beef steaks. J Food Sci 52(2):252-256, 262.

Meinert EM, Beirão LH, Texeira E (1999) Sensory and instrumental texture evaluation of restructured shrimp. Brit Food J 101:893-900.

Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (MSC) (1991) Orden del 2 de agosto de 1991 por la que se aprueban las normas microbiológicas, los límites de contenido en metales pesados y los métodos analíticos para la determinación de metales pesados para los productos de la pesca y de la acuicultura. Boletin Oficial del Estado. 195, 27513-27515.

Molin G, Strenstrom IM (1984) Effect of temperature on the microbial flora of herring fillets stored in air or carbon dioxide. J Appl Bacteriol 56:275-282.

Moreno HM, Carballo J, Borderías AJ (2009) Study of two different cold restructuring processes using two different qualities of hake (Merluccius capensis) muscle, with addition of microbial transglutaminase. J Sci Food Agric 89: 1346-1351.

Moreno HM, Carballo J, Borderías AJ (2010) Use of microbial transglutaminase and sodium alginate in the preparation of restructured fish models using cold gelation: Effect of fozen storage. Innov Food Sci Emerg 11: 394-400.

Motzer EA, Carpenter JA, Reinolds AE, Lyon CE (1998) Quality of restructured hams manufactured with PSE pork as affected by water binders. J Food Sci 63(6):1007-1011.

Motoki M, Okiyama A, Nonaka M, Tanaka H, Uchio R, Matsura A, Ando H, Umeda K (1989) Novel transglutaminase manufacture for preparation of protein gelling compounds. Japanese Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP, 0127471.

Motoki M, Seguro K (1998) Transglutaminase and its use for food processing. Trends Food Sci Tech 9:204-210.

Nahrinen M, Nissinen A, Penttila PL, Somonen O, Gernerud L, Puska P (1998) Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland. Agr Food Sci Finland 7:447-453.

Nozawa H, Mamegoshi S, Seki N (1997) Partial purification and characterization of six transglutaminases from ordinary muscles of various fishes and marine invertebrates. Comp Biochem Physiol 118B(2):313-317.

O’ Kennedy BD, Neville BD, Kelly P (2000) Optimization of ingredient formulation in processed meat products, use of novel dairy ingredients in processed meats. In: End of project report 1999. DPRC No 15, Dairy Products Research Centre, Teagasc Irish

Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Dublin, p. 11.

Özogul Y, Özyurt G, Özogul F, Kuley E, Polat A (2005) Freshness assessment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) by sensory, chemical and microbiological methods. Food Chem 92:745-751.

Papanastasiou DP (1991) Seafood. vol.A´, Ion edn, Athens, Greece.

Pietrasik Z (2003) Binding and textural properties of beef gels processed with κ-carrageenan, egg albumin and microbial transglutaminase. Meat Sci 63:317-324.

Pietrasik Z, Jarmoluk A (2003) Effect of sodium caseinate and κ-carrageenan on binding and textural properties of pork gels enhanced by microbial transglutaminase addition. Food Res Int 36:285-294.

Pietrasik Z, Li-Chan ECY (2002) Response surface methodology study on the effects of salt, microbial transglutaminase and heating temperature on pork batter gel properties. Food Res Int 35:387-396.

Pons-Sánchez-Cascado S, Vidal-Carou MC, Nunes ML, Verciana Nogués MT (2005) Sensory analysis to assess the freshness of Mediterranean anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus) stored in ice. Food Control 17(7):564-569.

Ramírez JA, Uresti R, Téllez S, Vázquez M (2002) Using salt and microbial transglutaminase as binding agents in restructured fish products resembling hams. J Food Sci 67(5):1778-1784.

Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 (1997) Concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 043:1-6.

Ruiz-Carrascal J, Regenstein J (2002) Emulsion stability and water uptake ability of chicken breast muscle proteins as affected by microbial transglutaminase. J Food Sci 67(2):734-739.

Sebranek JD, Olson DG, Whiting RC, Benedict RC, Rust RE, Kraft AA, Woychic J.H (1983) Physiological role of dietary sodium in human health and implications of sodium reduction in muscle foods. Food Technol 37(7):51.

Shao CH, Avens JS, Schmidt GR, Maga JA (1999) Functional, sensory and microbiological properties of restructured beef and emu steaks. J Food Sci 64(6):1052-1054.

Stergiou ΚΙ (1990) Structure of fish production in Greece. Fishing News 103:31.

Su YK, Bowers JA, Zayas JF (2000) Physical characteristics and microstructure of reduced fat frankfurters as affected by salt and emulsified fats stabilized with nonmeat proteins. J Food Sci 65:123-128.

Suklim K, Flick GJ, Marcy JE, Eigel W, Haugh CG, Granata LA (2004) Effect of cold-set binders: Alginates and microbial transglutaminase on the physical properties of restructured scallops. J Texture Stud 35(6):634-642.

Swanson KMJ, Petran RL, Hanlin JH (2001) Culture methods for enumeration of microorganisms. In: (eds: Downes FP, Ito K) Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 4th edn. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, USA, pp. 53-62.

Taliadourou D, Papadopoulos V, Domvridou E, Savvaidis IN, Kontominas MG (2003) Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of whole and filleted Mediterranean aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice. J Sci Food Agr 83:1373-1379.

Tėllez-Luis SJ, Ramírez JA, Vázquez M (2004) Application in restructured fish products of transglutaminase obtained by Streptoverticillium ladakanum in media made from hydrolysates of sorghum straw. J Food Sci 69(1): FMS1-5.

Tėllez-Luis SJ, Uresti RM, Ramírez JA, Vázquez M (2002) Low-salt restructured fish products using microbial transglutaminase as binding agent. J Sci Food Agr 82:953-959.

Trout GR, Schmidt GR (1986) Water binding ability of meat products: effect of fat level, effective salt concentration and cooking temperature. J Food Sci 51:1061-1062.

Tsai SJ, Unklesbay N, Unklesbay, K, Clarke A (1998) Thermal properties of restructured beef at different isothermal temperatures. J Food Sci 63(3):48-58.

Tsao CY, Kao YC, Hsieh JF, Jiang ST (2002) Use of soy protein and microbial transglutaminase as a binder in low-sodium restructured meats. J Food Sci 67(9):3502-3506.

Tseng TF, Liu DC, Chen MT (2000) Evaluation of transglutaminase on the quality of low-salt chicken meat-balls. Meat Sci 55:427-431.

van den Broek MJM, Mossel DAA, Mol H (1984) Microbiological quality of retail fresh fish fillets in the Netherlands. Int J Food Microbiol 1:53-62.

Vareltzis K (1988) Preparation without sodium chloride and texture evaluation of raw surimi gels made from three various kinds of fish. Die Fleischerei, 4, III-IV.

Vareltzis K, Buck EM, Hultin HO, Laus MJ (1989) Fish gel formation without added salt: Improvement via mixed species. J Food Process Pres 13:107.

Wijngaards G, Paardekooper EJC (1988) In: (eds: Krol B, van Roon PS, Houben JH, Pudoc A, Wageningen) Trends in modern meat technology, 2nd ed. p.125.

Yetim H, Ockerman W (1995a) The effects of egg white, tumbling, and storage time on proximate composition and protein fractions of restructured fish product. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 4(1):65-77.

Yetim H, Ockerman W (1995b) The influence of egg white and tumbling on proximate composition and protein fractions of fresh catfish muscle. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 3(4):25-39.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.